A LOOK INTO SIDDHA MEDICINE FOR EXPECTING MOMS WITH MODERN EYES
A.Subathra Devi, B.S.M.S.
Aruna Siddha Clinic, Chennai, E mail: email@example.com
Siddhar Agathiar savant of siddha medicine have explained the probable diseases and their symptoms which occur during different stages of pregnancy. He has mentioned there medial measures for such symptoms in his work titled 'VAIDHYA ARASANGIRAGAM'. Here I attempt to impress upon this ancient literature and compare those medications with present day finding. Abortion may occur in first four months of pregnancy due to some pathological reasons. Agathiar has advised different combination of herbal medicinal preparations for symptoms that occur during any particular stage of pregnancy. For example, for little pain in uterus during first month of conception, he has advised flowers of Nelumbo nucifera Santalum album wood paste and root of Plectranthus mollis, in equal quantities ground with water and then it is given internally with milk as adjuvant. In this abstract I have discussed a few and my full paper will be detailing each symptom and medication advised for the same with a modern eye for every stage of pregnancy.
MEDTHOD OF PREPARATION OF SOME AYURVEDIC FORMULATIONS LIKE LEHYAM, PAIN BALM, ASAVAS AND ARISHTAS
A. Rajendra Prasad1; Dr.D.Satyanarayana2 Dr. T. Bharathi3, P. Vasanth Kumar3
1Sri Srinivasa Ayurveda Pharmacy, TTD, Tirupati, AP
2Dept. of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamilanadu
3Krishna Teja Pharmacy College, Tirupathi
Since there are number of sub standard ayurvedic formulations of reputed brands, there is a much need of improvement in their method of preparation. We have seen ashwagandhadi lehyam that is very hard in consistency from a famous company, kutazarishta with plenty of acetic acid instead of alcohol. Preparation of General pain balm: It is one of the most wanted formulations of ayurvedic medicines. Active ingredients thymol, menthol, eucalyptus oil, camphor, methyl salicylate, soft paraffin and hard paraffin. Preparation of herbal onfectionary Ashwaganadhadi lehyam: Formulation of lehyam is a complicated and sensible process. A 40 year old company in A.P is unable to manufacture a good lehyam. The method to prepare an ideal lehyam is discussed here. Preparation of Asavams and Arishtams: Many asavas and arishtas prepared by the companies, which come in the 1st to 10th rank in India are not up to quality. A good asavam Arishtam should be free from acetic acid, but many of them are having acetic acid in them. The sourness in the asavam /arishtam is due to acetic acid, this is as a result of contamination of the product during processing and fermentation in the industry. The Sacchromyces Cerevisiae organism can convert sugar to alcohol, if other strains contaminate the product then the sugar will be converted to either acetic acid or lactic acid as the case may be. How to prevent acetic acid in the asavam arishtam? We have to maintain hygienic conditions.
HERBOLOGY IN AYURVEDA AND TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE
A.Lalithamba and N.S.R.Krishna Rao
Centre for Conservation of Biodiversity and Medicinal plants, Kavali, AP
Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) are indigenous medical schools of India and China respectively, developed over thousands of years. Ayurveda or the "Science of Life" is dealt with in Adharvanaveda and hence Ayurveda is as old as the Vedas. Ayurveda had a major impact on the development of TCM, Tibetan Medicine and Unani. WHO defines Traditional Medicine as "the health practices approaches, Knowledge, diagnosis and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral-based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises applied singularly or in combination to treat diagnose and prevent illness or maintain well-being". There are several parameters common to both Ayurveda and TCM, the theories, practices, diagnosis and treatments such as the use of herbs, animal products and minerals. Food therapy, herbology, massage-therapy, breathing exercises are a common denominator in both the Oriental medical schools. The central concept of Ayurvedic medicine is the theory that health exists where there is a balance among the fundamental bodily humors or Doshas called Vata, Pitta and Kapha. TCM theory is based on a number of philosophical Frame-works including the theory of Yin-Yang the five elements, the human body, Meridian system, Zang Fu organ theory and others. Diagnosis and treatment are conducted with reference to these concepts. There is a popular saying in China that "Chinese Medicine treats the humans while Western medicine treats the disease". WHO estimates that 80% of the world population currently use herbal treatment for some aspect of primary healthcare. Herbal medicine is a major component of all the traditional medical schools and a common element in Ayurveda, TCM, Kampo, Homoeopathy, Naturopathy and Native American Medicine. The paper briefly reviews the use of herbs in Ayurveda and TCM practices.
A BRIEF CONSCIENCE ABOUT AYURVEDIC FORMULATIONS AND THEIR SOPs
Sanjeev Kumar Ojha*, V. Rao; Sayyada Khatoon; AKS Rawat
Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division,
National Botanical Research Institute (CSIR), Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, U P
E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Drug and its various dosage forms are one of the most important parts of the treatment. The standard Ayurvedic preparations are required to make available in all season /region with the ease of palatability and dispensing, fixed dose per unit and various modes for all age groups, to obtain more efficacies by synergistic properties, finally to remove various body toxins. Administration of drug in various dosage forms provides an opportunity to physician to choose better options. Various dosage forms are described in Ayurvedic texts Among them one is Kwath ie: decoction Boil with water and reduce to 1/4, 1/8 or 1/16 of the original, as water evaporates the solidity of the extract increases resulting in various dosage form. It is further having three derived forms viz: Rasakriya, Avaleha and Ghana. The Increasing order of solidity (density) is Kwath < Rasakriya < Avaleha < Ghana. Avaleha (originated from the Sanskrit root 'Lih- aswadane' means 'to lick' or can be tasted with help of tongue) is semisolid formulation in consistency, with paste like appearance, typical spicy odour and astringent- sweetish taste. Avaleha are prepared by the addition of jaggery sugar or sugar candy and boiled with prescribed drug juices decoction, Honey, if required is added later on like Chayvanprash, Chitrak haritaki, Vyaghri haritaki, etc., They seem to have certain commonality in their preparation or generalization (Samanya) where as There are certain formulation which doesn't prepared through this method and consider as vishesh as Astāngāvaleha and will be discussed during the course of presentation.
PROPOSED AYURVEDIC THERAPY IN THE MANGEMENT
OF PROSTATE CANCER
Sanjiv Kumar, C. Murali Krishna and Subhash Singh
Central Researach Institute for Ayurveda, Patiala, Panjab
Cancer is the major problem in worldwide. It is the second leading cause of death in the developed countries after heart disease, whereas in the developing countries it is the 4th leading cause of mortality. Each year 7-10 million people die in the world from cancer. The incidence of prostate cancer is increasing day by day over the past 30 years. In India it has risen rapidly over the past 20 years. This disease is increasing at an average rate of 2.5% each year. 30% of male population is at a risk of prostate cancer in Punjab. Men moving from India to western countries are at greater risk to develop the prostate cancer due to change in the environment and life style. In USA around 2,30,000 prostate cancer cases were diagnosed in the year of 2004. Out of them 29,900 cases succumbed. High calorie diet, food containing high animal fat from meat, dairy products, pizza, burgers, high calcium diet, obesity (body mass index>30 kg./M2), reduced physical activities, all are concerned with the development of prostate cancer.
The combination of modern therapies using surgery, radiotherapy, chemo therapy, hormonal and immune therapies are helpful for prolonging the life expectancy in some types of cancer. However combine roll of these treatments is not satisfactory. That is why this has left the field open for using of other therapies like Ayurveda in the management of prostate cancer. Several studies have been conducted in the past to assess therapeutic efficacy of Ayurvedic drugs in the diseases of prostate and the results of all the studies are significant. In the search of literature more than 50 herbs including minerals have been found to have the promising results against prostatism.
STANDARDIZATION OF DRUGS W.S.R. TO THE FUNDAMENTALS OF
AYURVEDA IN THE PRESENT SCENARIO
K. Shankar Rao
Department of Rasashsastra, National Institute of Ayurveda, Amer Road, Jaipur, Rajasthan
Medicinal use of plants is as old as human civilization itself. The earliest record of prevention and cure of the ailments by Medicinal can be traced back to Rigveda, perhaps the oldest repository of human knowledge having been written between 5,000-2,000 BC. In Indian system of medicine it has been estimated that about 1500 vegetable drugs have been used in curing human ailments.India is a country with various tropical zones and large biodiversity. In the market, we often don't get genuine or standard crude drugs due to one or the other reason. In large number of cases, botanically different plants are being sold and used for the same Ayurvedic drug in different places. Some times different species of the same genus that are more easily and cheaply available are used in place of one that has been prescribed in the literature. In recent years the world is turning towards Natural products and Herbal medicine. Therefore the standardization that can satisfy both Ayurvedic as well as Modern parameters is essential in the present scenario for entering into the Global market. The present paper discuss on these aspect and the details on the standardization aspect will resent during the seminar.
ROLE OF GMP VIS-A-VIS MEDICINAL PLANTS FORMULATIONS IN
AYURVEDA AND UNANI SYSTEMS
*P.V.Raj and D.Narapa Reddy**
*Dept.of AYUSH, Govt. of A.P, Hyderabad
**Srinivasa Ayurveda Pharmacy,TTD, Tirupati, AP
Ayurveda and Unani Systems are the oldest traditional systems of Medicine in our country. About 70-80% formulations of various categories are manufactured by using herbal origin. 20-30~ ingredients of various formulations are derived from minerals, metals and animal sources. There are certain norms recommended for the collection, identification and purification before the manufacture of final drug. All these are available in the classical literature of Ayurveda and Unani medicine. Recently (2-3 decades) Government of India has also worked on Pharmacopoeal standards and brought out Indian Formulary, G}W (Good Manufacturing Practices) and good laboratory testing methods to ensure quality control as "lell as quality assurance" keeping in view the demand and supply of these drug formulations with in the country and outside as "Jell. Taking into the above factors in consideration, the details will be presented showing the importance of Medicinal Plants. To mention a few are: identification, collection, storage, Manufacturing process, Finished Drug packing Storage, Drug analysis for quality control and regulatory affairs. The above points are discussed in detail.
BIOTECHNOLOGICAL METHODS FOR CULTIVATION, PROPAGATION
AND RAW MATERIAL PRODUCTION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, R.J.College, Ghatkopar (W), Mumbai-400 086.
Plants have been used as natural drugs and health rejuvenators since time immemorial. Even now they play an important role in the health care of four- fifth of the world's population, mainly in the developing countries such as India for primary health care. India is known for its valuable heritage of herbal medicinal knowledge. One of the oldest forms of medicine known as Ayurveda practiced in India relies totally on natural resources such as plants, roots and herbs for use in medicinal practice. It is estimated that the total value of products from the entire traditional production in India is on the order of one billion US dollars. Besides supplying medicines many Ayurvedic industry also cater to areas of food and toiletries (soap, toothpaste, shampoo etc) and occupy a major share in the market making it a profitable business of traditional knowledge. Five main areas where there is need for raw material. These are plant drugs for Indian systems of medicines covering the Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems. over the counter non-prescription items involving plants, extracts and galanicals. Essential oils, phytopharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
This paper discusses the various biotechnological ways of propagating medicinal plants for ensuring uniformity of raw material/product as per market demand. Some of the techniques discussed will be micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, root cultures and scale up techniques for plant organ cultures. This paper discusses the bioreactor designs for shoot and root cultures with simple techniques for online monitoring of biomass.
MULTIPLE SHOOT INDUCTION FROM NODAL EXPLANTS OF
AERVA LANATA JUSS-A MEDICINAL HERB
*Parimala, P., Vijai, D. and Chithra, G.
P.G. and Research Dept. of Biotechnology, Bharath College of Science and Management
Thanjavur-5, E-mail: email@example.com
Aerva lanata Juss is a medicinal herb, which belongs to the family Amaranthaceae. It has cooling and diuretic properties and is used for Hemetemesis, diabetes, and lithiasis. The nodal explants were collected from field grown plants, surface sterilized and inoculated with Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with various concentrations and combinations of Auxins and Cytokinins. Induced multiple shoots were treated with Gibberellic acid after continuous subculture. The well-grown plantlets were hardened after the formation of roots with suitable rooting medium.
CRITICAL LEVEL OF SALINE TOLERANCE FOR ASWAGANDHA
R. Santhi, A.K.Mani, K.Appavu, R. Dhanapal, R. Natesan,
M. Sangeetha and C. l Paulraj
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, TNAU, Coimbatore 641 003,
Availability of good quality irrigation water is a serious problem in recent times and therefore the present study was undertaken with the objective of fixing the critical level of saline tolerance and the scope for utilising saline irrigation water for cultivating Aswagandha (Withania somnifera), an important medicinal plant. For this purpose, Aswagandha was screened at six salinity levels of irrigation water (EC at <1 (normal), 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dS m-1) under nursery conditions in a completely randomised block design with four replications. The growth parameters, chlorophyll content and soil EC were assessed at the end of the nursery experiment. The data on the shoot length revealed only a less variation among the treatments and however, the root length differed significantly and was the highest at 4 EC level (13.44 cm) and the least value of 9.55 cm was recorded at 10 EC. Normal water irrigation proved its superiority by recording a shoot dry matter of 4.23 g plant -1 followed by 2 and 4 EC levels and the root dry matter, however, did not differ markedly. The total dry matter production was 5.34, 4.20 and 4.18 g plant -1 with normal water, 2 and 4 EC, respectively which were on par with each other and was 2.13 g plant -1 with 10 EC recording 60 per cent reduction over normal water. The chlorophyll content exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing salinity level and the variations were relatively higher beyond 4 EC. The soil EC was 0. 47 dS m-1 with 4 EC irrigation which is harmless with management practices. The overall performance of Aswagandha clearly indicated that it is tolerant to irrigation water having salinity level up to 4 EC and could be cultivated under these conditions.
AN OPTIMIZED PROTOCOL FOR IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF NOTHAPODYTES FOETIDA (WIGHT) SLEUMER A THREATENED ANTINEOPLASTIC TREE
Anuradha M*, Huchesh C. Hoolageri and S. Balasubramanya
Rishi Herbal Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Opp. PES College, Bangalore
Nothapodytes foetida (Wight) Sleumer (Icacinaceae) is a medicinal tree, with a biosynthetic potentiality to produce antineoplastic compounds, camptothecin (CPT) and its derivatives. The tree is under threat in its natural habitat due to existing global demand for its high value compounds an attempt was made to optimize protocols for in vitro propagation. Direct regeneration of multiple shoot buds has been achieved from isolated embryos and explants derived from embryo cultures of Nothapodytes foetida (Wight) Sleumer. Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with BAP (13.3µM) and IBA (4.9M) induced maximum number shoot buds. MS medium, B5 medium and Woody Plants (WP) medium were compared for their efficiency to induce healthy multiple shoots from cultured embryos. Etiolation technique was followed for elongating stunted shoot primordia. When the regenerated shoots and field-transferred tissue cultured plants (four year-old) were extracted and quantified for the presence of quinoline alkaloids, it was identified that the chemical totipotency was retained and significant accumulation of camptotheicn and 9-methocycamptothecin was recorded. In vitro rooting was best induced on MS medium supplemented with NAA (2.6µM) and BAP (2.4µM). In vitro regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized and established in green house conditions. Acclimatization percentage was better when rooting was done in soil extract medium. The optimized regeneration system can be used for rapid propagation of selected elite clones of Nothapodytes foetida.
STUDIES ON INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC AMENDMENTS AND GROWTH PROMOTERS ON GROWTH, YIELD and QUALITY OF COLEUS (COLEUS FORSKHOLII) AND KEEZHANELLI (PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS)
S. Padmapriya, R. Balakumbahan, K. Rajamani and K. Kumanan
Horticultural College and Research Institute, TNAU, Coimbatore
E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A field experiment was conducted at Medicinal Plants Unit, Dept. of Spices and Plantation Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, TNAU, Coimbatore to standardize the effect of basal application of organic amendments and pre-harvest treatments with growth promoters on growth, yield and quality of Coleus forskohlii and Phyllanthus amarus. The study was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The results indicated that in coleus, the growth characters viz, plant height (64.5cm), plant spread (68.5cm2), number of branches (79.5) and dry matter production (7.8t/ha) was the highest in the treatment combination FYM (25t/ha) + Recommended Fertilizer Dose (Chemical Check) + foliar application of panchakavya (3%), humic acid (3%) and Manchurian mushroom 3(%) at fortnightly intervals. In phyllanthus, the same treatment combination recorded improved plant height (76.70cm), plant spread (58.35cm2), number of branches (27.40) and dry matter production (3.34t/ha). Similarly enhanced production of fresh tuber yield (30.1t/ha) in coleus and increased the fresh herbage yield (6.8t/ha) in phyllanthus was recorded with basal application of FYM, recommended dose of NPK and foliar spray of growth promoters. Application of FYM (25t/ha) + vermicompost (5t/ha) + neem cake (250kg) + foliar application of panchakavya (3%), humic acid (3%) and Manchurian mushroom (3%) at fortnightly intervals recorded increased values for forskholin (1.8%), Phyllanthin (0.80%) and hypophyllanthin (0.30%) contents in the two species respectively.
IN VITRO REGENRATION STUDIES IN STEVIA REBAUDIANA
Purushotam B1, Anuradha2, Sivareddykotla3, Jayapal Gowd4
East West college, padmashree college, Indian veterinary Research Institute,
Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa, AP
Stevia is a perennial shrub that belongs to the Asteraceae family. It has high medicinal value and often used for treating hypoglycemia, diabetes, flavor enhancer, and skin healing and also as a neutrocetical. Application of micro propagation in the horticulture industry has been recognized in the early part of 1970 it has become indispensable in propagation of many valuable medicinal plants. Traditional propagation methods through Seeds and vegetative propagation. They have several limitations like low multiplication rate and time consuming and labor intensive .Alternative to this is invitro micro propagation. In the present study direct organogenesis by auxiliary shoot proliferation and induction of callus on in vitro leaf explants has been demonstrated. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzyl- amino purine(BAP)alone and in combination with alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)(With different concentrations).The surface sterilized shoot tip and leaves (without petiole) were inoculated on MS medium. The inoculated culture were incubated at 25+_ 2 degrees photoperiod of 16 hours. The frequency of explants inducing shoot proliferation was scored in 15 days and 30 days in five replications for each experiment. At a concentration of BAP 2.5 mg/liter has produced maximum number of shoots and leaves i.e; 80% shoot proliferation. The increase or decrease in BAP concentration from 2.5 mg has resulted shoot proliferation lower frequency (15%). Combination of BAP and NAA was also found to be responsive for shoot proliferation with less frequency (6%).Therefore 2.5 mg BAP was found to be optimum for maximum shoot proliferation and combination of auxin was not beneficial .Callus initiation was found to be maximum in media supplemented with a combination of BAP 2mg/literand 2,4 D (0.5mg/liter).The callus color was green ,hard and compact. Visual observations suggested that this callus has undergone morphogenesis as well as embryogenesis. Upon transfer in to rooting medium The plantlets obtained in vitro from direct regeneration using shoot tip showed formation of roots in media contains auxin such as Indole butyric acid.(IBA).Invitro micro propagationis best method than traditional methods .
IN VITRO PROPAGATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES GAERTN AN ENDANGERED MEDICINAL HERB
Nagesh K. S. and Shanthamma C
Department of Studies in Botany, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore
E mail: email@example.com
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn is an endangered anticancer medicinal plant. The rhizome as well as tuberous roots of the plant has been extensively used in indigenous system of medicine in India. Attention has been paid to propagate this medicinal plant in vitro, to overcome endangeredness with particular emphasis on evaluation of the retention of antioxidant activity. Present investigation highlighted a successful protocol for in vitro propagation of C orchioides and its antioxidant activities. Results indicated 1. potency of proximal rhizome discs for optimum de novo shoot bud formation; 2. maximum number of shoot buds regeneration from proximal rhizome disc due to synergistic effects of 6–Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Kinetin (Kn) at 1 mg/l each; 3. induction of morphogenic callus on medium with 0.5 2 mg/l of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) containing BAP (0.5 3 mg/l); 4. maximum number of somatic embryos were induced on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium + BAP (1 mg/l); 5. optimum root induction on half-strength MS liquid medium with 1 mg/l of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); 6. acclimatization of rooted shoot-lets on sand and soil; 7. Reducing power and liposome peroxidation assay indicated 2.7 and 1.5 fold higher antioxidant activity respectively in in vitro derived rhizome (proximal rhizome disc) callus extract relative to that of in vivo rhizome extract. Further, dose dependent 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was observed in rhizome callus and in vivo rhizome with an EC50 of 0.145 mg and 0.04 mg gallic acid equivalent phenol respectively. In addition, the total phenolic content in rhizome callus and in vivo rhizome was found to be 2.502 mg/g and 1.43 mg/g respectively. Present study therefore provides a successful protocol for in vitro propagation of C. orchioides for conservation as well as for extraction of drug.
HIGH FREQUENCY ADVENTITIOUS SHOOT INDUCTION AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM LEAVES OF NYMPHOIDES CRISTATUM
M.H. Niranjan and M.S. Sudarshana
P.G. Department of Botany, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore
An efficient regeneration system for large-scale propagation of Nymphoides cristatum was developed using leaves from mature plants. Leaf segments (5X5 mm sections) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplanted with N6-benzyladenine (BA) and thidiazuron (TDZ) individually and in combination with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and -naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Profilic direct adventitious shoot regeneration occurred on most of the media. The best response in terms of frequency of shoot regeneration (99.5%) and number of shoots per explant (82 shoots per explant) was observed on medium supplemented with 0.5 mgl-1 2, 4.D and 1.0 mgl-1 TDZ. The shoots rooted easily on half strength MS medium with indole-3-acetic acid. In vitro propagated plants could be transferred to soil with survival rates of more than 90%.
EVALUATION OF IN VITRO CULTURE RESPONSE AND IDENTIFICATION OF SECONDARY METABOLITES IN ANDROGRAPHIS ECHIOIDES (L.) NEES.
P. Hemalatha, E. Vadivel and K. Rajamani
Horticultural College and Research Institute,T NAU, Coimbatore
E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Andrographis echioides (L.) Nees (Gopuram thanki) is one of the important medicinal plant species belonging to the family Acanthaceae. In the Indian Systems of Medicine predominantly, it is used against blood cancer. The leaf extract is recommended for oral consumption. Traditionally, the plant has been used as febrifuge, bitter tonic, astringent, anodyne and also for dysentery, cholera and diabetes. The ethanol extract of this plant used as diuretic and in sluggishness of liver and jaundice has been reported as the modern use of this plant. Research work on micro propagation and phytochemical aspect of Andrographis echioides (L.) Nees is very limited, the major objective of this study is to standardize the direct regeneration procedure and do the preliminary phytochemical screening and identify the distribution of chemical compounds in this medicinal plant. The experiment was carried out with Completely Randomized Design and Factorial Completely Randomized Design (FCRD) with three replications. Among the various explants, shoot tips responded positively for shoot induction. MS medium fortified with BAP (2.5 mgl-1) was found highly responsive for shoot induction. The multiple shoot induction was achieved in MS medium + BAP (3.0 mgl-1) and was elongated in MS medium + BAP (2.0 mgl-1) + GA3 (1.0 mgl-1) combination. Rooting was best (94.85 %) in ½ MS + IAA 0.5 mgl-1 + IBA 1.0 mgl-1. Pot mixture containing vermiculite + red earth + sand (1:1:1) was found optimum for hardening. In phytochemical screening of the plant sample, based on the molecular and fragmentation ions derived from mass spectrum, seven different compounds (12-dedihydroandrographolide-glucoside, dihydroskullcapflavone, androechin 2'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, dehydroneoandrographolide, dihydroandroechin-2'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, dihydroechioidinin 5-O-glucopyranoside and fucosterol) were identified from the plant sample.
MICROPROPAGATION AND CRYOPRESERVATION OF RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA- AN ENDANGERED MEDICINAL PLANT OF CENTRAL INDIA
S.K.Tiwari; Vijay Bahadur; Amit Pandey and Pankaj Bhargava
Forest Genetics, Plant Propagation and Biotechnology Division,
State Forest Research Institute, Polipathar, Jabalpur, M.P.
E mail: Drsktiwari1963@Rediffmail.Com
Rauwolfia serpentina (L) Benth. Ex. Kurz. commonly known as "Sarpgandha" is a tropical and perennial plant belongs to family Apocynaceae. The tuber part contains several alkaloids. The prominent ones are serpentine and reserpine, which are used to cure hypertension and other mental disorders. Conventionally it is propagated by seeds and vegetative methods of propagation. Since, the plant is endangered and the conventional methods of propagation are not sufficient for its conservation. Therefore the micropropagation method has been standardized on MS medium, supplemented with BAP 4.0mg/lt and IAA 2.0mg/lt. through nodal segments. The highly rejuvenated micro-shoots were used for long term cryopreservation experiments. The cryopreservation technique using vitrification and encapsulation dehydration techniques have also been standardized at -196 ºC in liquid nitrogen. The cryopreserved materials were successfully regenerated on MS cultured medium.
MICROPROPAGATION OF VANILLA WIGHTIANA LINDL. AN ENDEMIC ORCHID
1S. Prasad and Murthy, J.S.R.*
1Dept. of Biotechnology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam
* Dept. of Botany, S.V. University, Tirupati
Vanilla wightiana is a rare endemic vine orchid which possess many promising traits for the genetic improvement or V.planifolia. Destruction of natural habitat and indiscriminate collection of plants has endangered its survival. This necessitates the development of micropropagation protocol for the generation of planting material for conservation and utilization for the genetic improvement. Micropropagation and regeneration protocols were developed for the first time using nodal segments containing dormant axillary buds and shoot tips. Basing on the preliminary data MS and KC medium supplemented with various concentrations of BAP (5, 3 and 1mg/L) in combination with IAA and calcium pentothenate 0.1mg/L each was used for the refinement of protocol. Axillary bud proliferation (10-14 shoots) and multiple shoot induction (5-6 shoots) from nodal and shoot tips explants respectively was maximum on MS medium with 5mg/L BAP. Multiple shoot induction is more efficient when the cultures were initiated on KC medium followed by transfer on to MS medium. Establishment and elongation of shoots is better on MS medium with 1mg/L BAP and 0.5mg/L IAA. Induction of protocorm like bodies and regeneration of shoots has been achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP. The survival of shoots during the acclimatization is very poor and needs standardization.
SECONDARY METABOLITE PRODUCTION AND ORGANOGENESIS
FROM ADHATODA VASIKA
K.Shalaka, P.Sandhya, G. Nikita.
S.V.B's College of Pharmacy, Dombivli 421 203; Dist.-Thane.
Adhatoda vasika (family: Acanthaceae) commonly known as vasaka has been used in traditional system of medicine for several respiratory tract ailments. Vasicine and vasicinone are the important alkaloids of vasaka having bronchodilatory and expectorant effect. In the present study we have tried to develop callus cultures of vasaka from leaf, petiole and nodes by using different plant growth regulator (PGR) combinations. The best PGR combination in terms of biomass, bioactive secondary metabolite and repeatability to induce callus was determined. Secondary metabolite recovered from callus was confirmed with the standard by using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.
MS medium fortified with NAA in the range of 1.2µM to 10.7µM; 6BA in the range of 2 .2µM to 4.4µM; 2,4D from 4.5µM to 13.5µM and kinetin from 2.3µM to 4.6µM were studied. MS medium prepared with 10.7µm NAA and 2 .2µm 6BA showed 90% repeatability to induce callus on 7th day of inoculation with 32% secondary metabolite accumulation. An attempt to increase secondary metabolite concentration using cell suspension culture has been tried and a rise in alkaloidal content from 0.009 mg/ml to 0.036 mg/ml was obtained in a period of one month.
Organogenesis was established through both de nova origin of callus and adventitious type from explant. The best PGR combination for shoot initiation by direct organogenesis was established by lowering the auxin and increasing the cytokinin concentration. Invitro root initiation by de nova callus technique was also established for vasaka. The result of study reveals that the developed callus, shoot and root invitro cultures can be used as alternative source for production of vasaka alkaloids of pharmaceutical interest.
CLONAL MULTIPLICATION OF FIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM NILGIRI BIOSPHERE RESERVE AS INFLUENCED BY GROWTH HORMONES
Paulsamy, S., P. Senthilkumar and M. Sivashanmugam
PG and Research Dept. of Botany, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore
To enhance the population size, five medicinal plants such as Acmella calva, Cayratia pedata, Disporum leschenaultianum, Lycianthes bigeminata and Ophiorrhiza mungos which are reported to have lower seed germination and hence the less perpetuation in their shola forests of Nilgiris were attempted for clonal multiplication as influenced by various concentrations and combinations of auxins viz. IBA and NAA. The results revealed that the stem cuttings of all the five species showed significant increase in rooting after the treatment with IBA and NAA at 2000ppm each. However, the species, Acmella calva responded well than the other species do for this attribute in this concentration. It is further observed that the growth of root for all the species needed slightly higher concentration of NAA along with IBA. Hence it is suggested that the clonal propagules raised through this standardized protocol may be introduced in the Nilgiris sholas for their increase in population and conservation of species as well.
FINGER PRINTING OF ACID LIME (CITRUS AURANTIFOLIA SWINGLE) VARIETIES and CLONES HAVING VARIED RESISTANCE TO
BACTERIAL CANKER, USING RAPD MARKER
K. Gopal*, K. Alpa, V. Gopi, G. Prasad Babu**, S. Aliya and B. Sreenivasulu
Citrus Research Station, Acharya N.G Ranga Agricultural University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh
** Department of Botany, S.V.University, Tirupati-517 502
Citrus is an important fruit crop having divergent genetic variation with in the species. The germplasm identification and characterization is an important link between the conservation and utilization of genetic resources. Conventionally, varieties/clones identification has relied on morphological characters like growth habit, leaf, floral and fruit characters etc. Investigation through RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers was carried out for determination of genetic variation among 12 acid lime clones having varied resistance to bacterial canker disease. DNA was extracted from the leaf of 12 acid lime clones was subjected to PCR using 20 random primers (9 from OPM and 11 from OPA series) yielded a total of 127 distinct DNA fragments, out of which 103 were polymorphic. Genetic similarity was evaluated based on presence or absence of band. The bands obtained were polymorphic with size ranging from 750 bp to 2.5 kb. The cluster analysis was made by the similarity co-efficient showed that the Balaji, RHRL-124 and PKM-1 formed one cluster and remaining clones form second cluster which in turn divided as TAL 94-9, TAL 94-10, TAL 94-11 and TAL 94-12 formed as first sub-cluster; Nalgonda selection and Local acid lime formed as second sub-cluster; TAL 94-8, RHRL-49 and RHRL-122 did not resemble any other clones. Among the 12 acid lime clones, Balaji, RHRL-124, RHRL-122, PKM-1 were found moderately resistant to bacterial canker. Correlation of RAPD data with canker disease incidence the moderately resistant acid lime clones viz., Balaji, RHRL-124 and PKM-1 were formed as one cluster and all susceptible clones formed as second cluster viz., except TAL-94-9, RHRL-122 which were found as moderately resistant did not form cluster with any other acid lime clone.
EX-SITU CONSERVATION OF CENTELLA ASIATICA (L.) URBAN AN ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES THROUGH LEAF CALLUS CULTURE
Ch.Paramageetham*, G.Prasad Babu, and J.V.S. Rao
*Dept. of Microbiology, S.V.U.P.G. Centre, Kavali, Andhra Pradesh
Dept. of Botany, S.V.University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh
Centella asiatica (L.) Urban enjoys considerable reputation in Natural medicine as alexiteric, antipyrectic, diuretic and stomachic. The plant was considered to be an useful alternative and tonic in nervine, skin and blood diseases. It also possess antibacterial, antifeedant, antifilarial, antileprotic, antistress, anti tuberculosis activities and wound healing properties. It contains glycosides, brahmoside, brahminoside, asiaticoside, thankuniside and isothankuniside. Recently, Centella based drugs are getting popularity because of their active principles. So, the demand for this plant material also risen sharply. The large scale unrestricted exploitation, insufficient attempts for its replenishment the wild stock of this medicinally important plant species has been markedly depleted As a result, now it is listed as threatened and an endangered species by IUCN. An efficient protocol for plantlet regeneration through the leaf calli has been established in Centella asiatica. The leaf explants proliferate into luxuriant callus mass on MS medium fortified with 9.05 ug 2,4-D. Morphogenesis was obtained on MS medium supplemented with BAP(8.87ug) and IAA(0.57ug) Caulogenesis was optimized (18.7± 0.7/callus) due to the interaction of Kinetin (2.32ug) BAP (0.44ug) and TDZ (0.45ug) with 86% frequency. The microshoots were rooted well on MS medium containing half strength MS medium containing 2.46ug IBA alone. The plantlets derived from the leaf calli were well acclitimatized into field with only 5% mortality. This study may be helpful in micro propagation and ex –situ conservation of Centella asiatica an important medicinal plant.
CONSERVATION OF SOME OF THE IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM NORTH-EAST INDIA THROUGH IN VITRO CULTURE STRATEGIES
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
A large number of wild medicinal plants are used in the modern pharmaceutical industries and in traditional practices. Most of the plants are collected by the users from their natural populations. Many species of medicinal plants growing in natural habitats are becoming scarce and supply of these is limited. Consequently, their unlimited collection as raw materials may lead to the complete disappearance and extinction of certain species and varieties. Such deterioration is further augmented due to unplanned and ruthless exploitation by Drug industries, biopiracy and deforestation. On the other hand, there are many medicinal plants that are required by drug industries but are not cultivated in real sense of the term. The endangered medicinal plants which are also slow propagating and thus having low regenerative ability require rapid cloning through tissue culture strategies. Some of the important medicinal plants from North East India facing threat from over-exploitation by the commercial establishments and local people for their medicinal usage were taken up for in vitro clonal propagation and multiplication. These medicinal plants include Rubia cordifolia, Oroxylum indicum, Piper mullesua, Elaeocarpus sphaericus. Micropropagation protocols were developed for these plants wherein nutrient media were standardized to produce multiple shoots and later plantlets. These plants were successfully transferred to the field. This paper deals with the above aspects and the results obtained will be presented and discussed.
CONSERVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE NILGIRI HILLS
OF TAMIL NADU, SOUTH INDIA
S. Rajan and M. Sethuraman*
Central Council for Research in Homeopathy,Indira Nagar, Emerald The Nilgirs, TN, .
* Department of Medical Anthropology, Tamil University, Thanjavur-613 010, TN,
The Nilgiri hills referred to as "the blue mountains" lies between 11°, 12' to 11°, 43' North to 76°, 14' and 77°, 1' East in the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu. The hills are part of mountain ranges, spanning an area of 2,543 sq. km. The general topography of the area consists of undulating hills and elevated lands with elevation varying from 350 to 2623 m above sea level. It is characterized by rich and diversified flora and fauna distributed over the tropical to temperate zones. The floristic composition of Nilgiri district is highly diverse, rich in indigenous and exotic flora. It contains many rare, endangered and endemic plants within. This district occupies not only the floristic diversity and also ethnic diversity consists of six anthropologically well-defined primitive tribal groups, spread in a mosaic of habitats. It is noted from the records that these ethnic groups have inhabited the Western Ghats and in the Nilgiri hills since 700 and 1200 B.C. respectively. Onservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants based on Indigenous Knowledge System (IKS) and practices is gained in Indian ethos. Applications and practices for the use of biodiversity in the country have developed over the years in traditional scientific processes. The strategies for conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity have been providing special status and protection to biodiversity rich areas by declaring them as National parkas, Wildlife Sanctuaries; Biosphere Reserve, ecologically fragile and sensitive areas. Other strategies including off loading treasure from reserve forests by alternative measures, of fuel wood and fodder by deforestation of degraded areas and wastelands and creation of ex situ conservation facilities like, gene banks and gene pools. For example Nadugani and Kodanadu gene pools in Nilgiris for preserving the rich native diversity of most of the plant species.
TRADITIONAL USES, RESOURCE ASSESSMENT and CONSERVATION OF
HIGH ALTITUDE MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE HIMALAYAS
Chandra Prakash Kala and Bikram Singh Sajwan
National Medicinal Plants Board, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare,
Government of India, Chandralok Building, 36- Janpath, New Delhi- 110 001
The Himalayas harbour a rich diversity of medicinal plant species. Over the centuries, the collection of many important medicinal plant species for commercial purpose has exerted a tremendous pressure on their existing populations in wild. At the same time, there is a tendency to neglect the use of less important medicinal plants, which is resulting in the loss of valuable traditional knowledge acquired and practiced over the years. There are two major sects of traditional therapies in the Himalayas the Ayurveda and the Tibetan system of medicine. The present study, thus, deals with the documentation of various indigenous uses of medicinal plants used in Ayurvedic and Tibetan system of medicine. Besides, the study aims to understand the effects of in-situ conservation strategies on the medicinal plants and the population density of threatened medicinal plant species of the Himalayan region. Questionnaire surveys were conducted among vaidya and amchis, the practitioners of Ayurveda and Tibetan systems of medicine, for documentation of medicinal plants. Quantification of threatened medicinal plant species was carried out using quadrats across the various habitat types and altitudinal ranges. Our findings reveal that there is sharp decline in traditional health care practices through recent generations in the Himalayan region. Of the total medicinal plants of the Indian Himalayan region, 60 species of threatened medicinal plants were found during the survey. Most of the threatened medicinal plants have localized distribution pattern, and the moist areas were the most species-rich localities for medicinal as well as rare plants in the trans-Himalayan region. Realizing the rarity in many valuable medicinal plant species, which are important for both ecological and economic point of view, it is imperative to conserve the existing germplasm of these species. The National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB) has been supporting different organizations/ Institutions since its inception for conservation of such valuable medicinal plant species under its various schemes across the Himalayas. The study discusses various schemes of NMPB, especially with respect to the conservation and management of the high altitude medicinal plants of the Himalayas.
ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L. (ZYGOPHYLLACEAE) MEDICINAL HERB, FROM GUJARAT, INDIA.
Ishnava Kalpesh, B.* and J.S.S. Mohan1
1Department of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120.
*Present Address Ashok and Rita Patel Institute of Integrated Studies and Research in Biotechnology and Allied Sciences, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat, India
Germplasm collection of Tribulus terrestris L., a medicinal herb endowed with curative properties against a variety of ailments, was carried out from various parts of Gujarat. The germplasm was reared in a field plot under identical conditions. Mature leaves were collected and used for the present study. 17 accessions were analyzed, resolving 19 loci and 29 alleles from 9 enzyme systems. An average of 12.07 % of the analyzed loci was found to be polymorphic (P), and mean observed number of alleles per locus (A) was 1.14. Average observed (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He) were 0.879 and 0.885 respectively, showing moderate levels of genetic variation among different accessions. The genetically rich germplasm will be useful for maintenance in gene bank and future breeding programmes.
USES, SOURCING AND CONSERVATION OF SOME MEDICINAL
PLANTS IN SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA
Taiye R. Fasola and A. Egunyomi
Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
A study was conducted to evaluate and document the uses, parts used, collection and conservation status of medicinal plants in Gambari, Olokemeji and Akure forest reserves and environs. Six hundred structured questionnaires were administered on men and women in three Southwestern Nigerian forest reserves and environs. The questionnaires administered were to elicit responses on the medicinal uses of plant parts, methods of preparation and administration. Opinions of the respondents were sought on the concept of plant conservation and their efforts to achieve it. One hundred plant species belonging to 66 families were put into 38 medicinal uses by the indigenous people in the study sites. The survey showed that bark constituted 35% of all the different parts of plant used, followed by leaves 30%; roots 13%; seeds/fruits 10%; bulbs 5%; stems 5% and whole plants 2%. In relation to harvesting techniques, 33.3% of harvesting in the studied sites was by picking and plucking, 22.2% by cutting of branches, 16.7% by uprooting and 27.5% by debarking. This study creates awareness on the contribution of medicinal plants to health care delivery in Nigeria and draws the attention to the need of their conservation in view of indiscriminate exploitation of the forests. The ethnomedicinal uses of plants compiled may be useful to scientists who may screen them for drug production
INFLUENCE OF SEASON AND MANURING ON CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL
AND QUALITY ASPECTS OF ALOE VERA
V.Umamahesh, B.GopalSingh, D.V.V.Reddy and S.J.Rahaman
College of Agriculture, ANGRAU, Rajendranagar
Field and laboratory experiments were conducted in the Department of Plant Physiology College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar and at Herbal Garden, ANGRAU to know the influence of season and manuring on certain physiological and quality aspects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) following randomized block design during khairf and rabi, 2003. The laboratory experiments were conducted in completely randomized design replicated five times. The eight treatments consist of control, vermicompost (5 t ha-1), neem cake (1.2 t ha-1), FYM (10 t ha-1), NPK (0 kg N ha-1 + 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 + 50 kg K2O ha-1), NPK (25 kg N ha-1 + 50 kg P2O5 ha-1+ 50 kg K2O ha-1), NPK (50 kg N ha-1 + 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 + 50 kg K2O ha-1) and NPK [(50 kg N ha-1 (25 kg N through neem cake + 25 kg N through urea) + 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 + 50 kg K2O ha-1)]. Laboratory experiments were conducted to know the antifeedent, antifungal and nematicidal properties of aloe crude extract at various concentrations (0 to 10 per cent). From the present findings it is evident that vermicompost (5 t ha-1) recorded significantly high number of leaves (15.3 and 14.3), leaf area (923.6 and 790.1 cm2), plant height (58.9 and 51.9 cm), plant fresh weight (1261.2 and 1091.2 g), root fresh weight (15.2 and 10.0 g), barbaloin (7.2 and 6.8 %) and gel content (0.28 and 0.23) in kharif and rabi. However,Neem cake recorded significantly high crude fibre content (0.29 and 0.31). It also recorded significantly high plant dry weight(87.3g) in khairf .Among the treatments vermicompost recorded significantly higher values for LAI (0.523 and 0.44) and LAD (23.4 and 21.1 d m2 days) in both the seasons. Effect of aloe crude extract on larval mortality of spodoptera litura, anti-fungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. and on egg hatching and survival rate in Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus coffeae nematodes were found to be positive. Further, extraction procedure was standardized using various preservatives and post harvest treatments for commercial production of Aloe vera gel.
CONSERVATION APPROACHES FOR SUSTENANCE OF GENETIC RESOURCES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE EASTERN GHATS
K.S. Varaprasad, N.Sivaraj, S.R. Pandravada and N.Sunil
National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Regional Station, Rajendranaga, Hyderabad, India.
The rich and diverse heritage of indigenous medicinal plants in the Eastern Ghats is threatened due to various biotic and abiotic stresses and the technological advancements. With the increase of interest in herbal medicine while some of them have been brought under cultivation (Withania somnifera, Aloe vera, Gloriosa superba, Chlorophytum sps etc.) most of them face threats to their natural existence. Hence, conservation of medicinal plants in Eastern Ghats has assumed critical significance and the present article deals with varied strategies for conservation of the same in Eastern Ghats. Of the 172 medicinal plants studied, majority of the medicinal plant species (78%) are orthodox in nature as far as their seed storage behaviour is concerned and are identified for conventional conservation in seed gene banks as ex-situ (Aglaia roxburghiana, Capparis grandis etc.), few species (9%) by cryo preservation (Adina Cordifolia, Cinchona succirubra, Feronia elephantum etc.) and the others (13%) by tissue culture methods (Aganosma cymosum, Alangium salviifolium, Cissus quadrangularis, Commiphora caudata etc.).
Hotspot areas based on species richness and diversity in medicinal plants in the Eastern Ghats region are also identified for In-situ conservation. Some of the hotspots identified for medicinal plants germplasm are Mahendragiri (Orissa), Papi Hills, Maredumilli, Nallamalais, Seshachalam hills (Andhra Pradesh) and Kolli and Shervaroy hills (Tamil Nadu).The species richness in the various vegetation types of Eastern Ghats indicated that 41% represented scrub, 35% semi-evergreen and 24% deciduous vegetation respectively. Also some of the endemic (Cycas beddomei) and global endangered plants (Decalepis hamiltonii) need to be identified for Conservation in DNA banks. Information on phenology has been taken in to account to generate information on flowering and fruiting periods so as to enable ex-situ conservation of medicinal plant germplasm. Majority of medicinal tree taxa are observed to flower during the months of March and April (dry period) and only a few during the period of August and December. The medicinal herbaceous taxa flowered during December-February. Majority of tree taxa are observed to fruit during the dry season (April-May) with a peak during April while the medicinal plants of herbaceous nature fruited during January-March. The information, thus generated would be useful for planning proper conservation approach and management of medicinal Plant genetic resources through coordinated and concerted efforts of all the stakeholder viz. Tribals, NGOs, Government organizations across ministries as a social movement in the Eastern Ghats on sustainable basis.
SEED HEALTH PROBLEMS OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS AND
THEIR IMPACT ON SEEDLING PRODUCTION
Swapna Priya, K., and Nagaveni, H.C.*
Institute of Wood Science and Technology,Malleswaram, Bangalore
Seeds of tree species are generally prone to attack by microorganisms of which the fungi are the principal ones. Fungi carried on or within the seeds can reduce seed germination or seedling emergence. Some plant pathogenic fungi kill seedlings shortly after they emerge, whereas others cause serious epidemics after being transmitted from seeds to seedlings. Determining what proportion of seeds in a given lot are contaminated by a fungus is therefore of interest. The study was carried out to find the seed health problem associated with fungi of fruits/seeds and their impact on seedling production/ planting stock of selected endemic medicinal plants viz., Garcinia gummi-gatta, Poeciloneuron indicum and Vateria indica. Survey, which was carried out in the nurseries, showed that germination and survival percentage was very poor, resulting in poor planting stock of the selected plants. The seeds were collected by sweeping from forest floor and stored along with infected seeds, which carry several seed borne fungi, resulting in reduction of viable seeds, there by reducing the germination % with more mortality of seedlings. During the study, it was found that collected seeds from forest floor carried the common storage fungi Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp. and Trichoderma sp., along with field fungi like Alternaria sp., Acremonium sp., Beltrania sp., Cladosporium sp., Cylindrocladium sp., Colletotrichum sp., and Phomopsis sp. These fungi play an important role in causing the seed health problems like seed rotting, shrinkage, discolouration, abortion and poor germination. Because of "improper" method of seed collection, storage and handling, seeds get damaged and significant number of seeds fails to germinate. The impact of the problem on seedling production of selected plants and the strategies to be followed to overcome these problems are discussed in detail in the paper.
STATUS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE CATCHMENTS OF RIVER MAHANADI UPTO HIRAKUD DAM WATER RESERVOIR OF SAMBALPUR DISTRICT, ORISSA
Lalit Mohan Behera
Retired Reader in Botany, G.M. College (Autonomous), Sambalpur, Orissa.
Hirakud Dam built on the river Mahanadi (longest river of Orissa) is 16 km. North of Sambalpur town (the district headquarter of Sambalpur) and 6 km. From NH6 and 2 km to the west of Hirakud town is a composite structure of earth, concrete and masonry. The main dam having an overall length of 48 km spreads between the hills Lamdungri on the let hand and Chanlidunri on the right. The dam is flanked by 21 km long earthen dykes on both left and right sides close to the low suddles beyond the abutment hills and are known as left and right dykes respectively. The left dyke comes under Jharsuguda district, the right dyke comes under Bargarh district while down stream towards south comes under Sambalpur district.The water bound by both left and right dykes has submersed a large number of hills, hillocks and vast forest areas. The study has been made towards the right side catchments (which are not so disturbed by urbanization and industrialization) to ascertain the medicinal plants available at present. It also highlights the medicinal and ethnomedicinal plants of this area.
CONSERVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS STRATEGY ADOPTED BY BIRHORE
TRIBES OF JHARKHAND
P.K. Mishra and S.B. Choudhary
Dept. of Botany Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribagh 825 301, Jharkhand
As the name suggest, the state Jharkhand is predominated by plants (Jhar) and tribal people have maintained their intrinsic and intimate relationship with plants in general and medical plants in particular. The present paper in confined to underline the practices adopted by Birhore tribe, particularly to conserve medicinal plants. Birhore is a dwinding tribal mainly confined to Dhanbad and Hazaribagh districts of Jharkhand. Their states of art practices for conservation of medicinal plants are praiseworthy. Members of this tribe worship some sacred spirits 'Bonga' and the abobe of Bonga is strictly protected. Such areas are known as Bonbibi tola and no one can pluck even a single herb from here. Medicinal plants are also conserved by imposing restriction. Whole plants are never uprooted and reproductive parts are protected. Plants parts are never collected after sunset. This practice significantly prevents mass scale illegal exploitation of medicinal plants. Birhores earmark certain location in forest area and call them Berga. These are generally three point crossing of the area. Destruction of plant from such areas is prohibited. Tradition of conserving specific medicinal plants is also available. Green twigs of Adina Cordfolia, Caryota urens and Madhuca longifilia can never be cut. Plant of Dipteracanthus suffruticosus and Asparagus racemosus can not be plucked from place of its single occurrence. In case of some other medicinal plants, frequency of collection plant parts is restricted. Leaves of Terminalia sp and Gardenia sp are never collected twice from one plant in a year by Birhore tribes. These practices adopted by Birhore tribes are highly practical and scientific. It is high time, these traditional practices should be adopted by other peoples also to conserve medicinal plants.
STRATEGIES FOR CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICINAL PLANT RESOURCES USING BIOFERTILIZERS AND
S.B.Padhi, P.K. Dash and S.K.Behera
Department of Botany, Berhampur University, Berhampur
There has been resurgence in the consumption and demand for medicinal plants to be used as pharmaceuticals, neutraceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Demand for medicinal plants is increasing in both developing and developed countries due to growing recognition of natural products, being non-toxic, having no side-effects, easily available at affordable prices. Since Medicinal plants have been indiscriminately exploited for short term benefits its conservation is highly essential. Various techniques like germplasm collecting missions, conservation of the collected germplasm at the genetic resource unit, generation of enhanced medicinal plant biomass through organic farming using Cyanobacterial and liquid seaweed fertilizers, implementation of biological databases and creation of awareness will be highlighted for the proper conservation of Medicinal plant resources ensure that adequate quantities are available for future generation. To make it reliable, medicinal plants database can be created using Bioinformatics tools and techniques successfully. To place the medicinal plants in their rational and sustainable use. By creating a medicinal plant database appropriate diagnosis of concern medicinal plant and plant parts that are disease specific along with their effective alkaloids and application procedure of dosage and be recognized. The biological databases will identify components of the biological diversity important for their conservation and sustainable development.
CONSERVATION OF RARE AND ENDANGERED ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES OF AMARKANTAK BIOSPHERE RESERVE (ABR)
OF MADHYA PRADESH INDIA
Skand Mishra and Usha Tiwari
Botany Department, Govt. New Science College, Rewa (M.P.) 486001 INDIA
The proposed Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve lies on boundaries of newly organized Chhatishgarh and Madhya Pradesh between 2215' to 2258'N Latitudes and 8166' to 825'E Longitudes, having an area of 3835.51 sq.km. The reserve has a diversity of ecosystem, community and species. Amarkantak, Karanjia and Achanakmar region of ABR have ideal habitat and are abode of many rare and medicinally important species. These medicinal plants are used against different ailments by natives of the area. They collect and sell these medicines in the local markets to earn their livelihood.
The deforestation and indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources has resulted in loss of ethnomedicinal plants in the area. Some species such as Abrus precatorius, Acorus calamus, Andrographis paniculata, Capparis horida, Celastrus paniculatus, Chlorophytum tuberosum, Costos speciosus, Curcuma caesia, Dioscorea demoona, Dioscorea oppositifolia, Drimia indiaca, Gloriosa superba, Hedychium coronarium, Mucuna puriens, Rauwalfia serpentina, Strychnos nux-vomica, Zingiber roseum etc. are rare and endangered, hence, utmost priority should be given to conserve these species. Present paper deals with the name, habitat, uses, present status, causes of destruction and strategies for protection and conservation of rate and endangered medicinal plants of Amarkantak region of ABR.
IMPORTANCE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF ARDHAGIRI HILL,
Hema Latha and N. Yasodamma
Dept. of Botany, S.V. University, Tirupati.
Ardhagiri hill is one of the important sacred grooves in Chittoor district. It is about 120 Kms from Tirupati town. The altitude ranges between 1000 meters to 1300 meters. The presence of two to three big water tanks on the up hill is having a great significance in curing many ailments. People are having a great belief and faith and they used to visit this hill, and has become an important pilgrim centre of Sri Anjaneya swamy temple. Hence Ardhagiri hill area has been taken for the enumeration of medicinal plants and their significance during 2004 to 2007. Nearly 300-400 medicinal plant species were identified. Which belongs to 80 families. Majority of the species are covered by grasses. Out of which some of the species were identified as new reports to the district, as Indigofera species, Commelina species and some of the Ceropegia species. It reveals the presence of some important rare medicinal plant species and indicates the holiness of the table waters which is present on the hill.
DEVELOPING THE MEDICINAL PLANTS IN INDIA - CHALLENGES
Dr. Gopala Krishna Chintalapati,
Department of Zoology, Hindu College, Guntur.
The traditional knowledge system is disappeared in India due to scarcity of documents, results to review the value and knowledge of medicinal plants sectors, where forests play key role in providing a diversity of valuable forest products for food and medicine. The Northern India harbors a rich diversity of valuable medicinal plants due to majestic Himalayan range, where maximum i.e., 1748 medicinal plants are reported. In Asia, India & China occupies top registered and relatively well known medicinal plants. In India 7,600 are known medicinal plants out of 17,000 higher plants. In India traditional medicine is practiced in two ways as, Folk Medicine (Housewives & elders, Traditional attendants, Herbal healers, Bone setters and Visha Vaidyas) and Codified System of medicine (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Tibetan system). Ayurveda is the oldest medical system in India, reported nearly 2000 medicinal plant species followed by Siddha, Unani and the export quantity of Ayurvedic products is tripled during 2001-2003 and Vigorous demand now a days. Charak Samhita, an age old written document reports 340 herbal drugs and their indigenous uses. 25% of drugs are derived from such plants and others are isolated from plant species in modern Pharmacopoeia.
GLOBAL MEDICINAL PLANTS PHYTOPEST DATABASE ON
CULTIVATED MEDICINAL PLANTS
K Anitha, B Sarath Babu R D V J Prasada Rao, S K Chakrabarty and K S Varaprasad
National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources Regional Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad.
In India about 7300 plant species are used in traditional health care systems such as Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and folk healing practices. Biotic stresses play a major role in the depletion of medicinal plant wealth. Several databases on medicinal plants of India have been establsihed on medicinal plants (http://envis.frlht.org.in, http://mpcpdb.frlht.org.in) with the major objective of conservation of the rare and useful medicinal plant species. The CABI Crop Protection Compendium mainly concentrated on cultivated agri-horticultural crops and very few medicinal plants were covered with reference to global pest status. Although some important medicinal plant species have been brought under cultivation, several of them are still being collected from naturally occurring populations. However, comprehensive information on the pest and disease status on these plants is lacking and hence an attempt has been made to fill this gap. The database is likely to serve the needs of the farmers, conservers, policy makers particularly on plant quarantine issues, researchers and students interested in naturally occurring and cultivated medicinal flora.The species in the database include Catharanthus roseus (Periwinkle), Gloriosa superba, Withania somnifera, Papaver somniferum (Opium poppy), Echinacea purpurea (Purple cone flower), Asparagus racemosus etc. The database covers the information on crop, medicinal use, active principle, global pest records covering insect pests, fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes etc along with their distribution, nature of damage, pathway of transmission and management options, if any including images of pests and symptoms. For example, literature survey showed that about 3 fungi, 2 viruses, 1 phytoplasma, 3 insects and 1 nematode are known to cause damage to W. somnifera globally.Information on disease resistant lines is also available in the database. For example, opium poppy lines resistant to downy mildew (Papaver somniferum) (IC 128), stem rot and capsule rot (Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora) diseases (BP-8) and Poppy mottle virus (PoMV) (OP-3, OP-4, OP-12 and OP-26) are listed and can be effectively utilized for commercial cultivation. Leaf spot caused by Pithomyces chartarum was responsible for reducing W. somnifera bio-mass substantially and constitutes a potential threat to this cultivated species. Early diagnosis and removal of Aster yellows infected plants play a significant role in reducing the spread in crops like C. roseus and E. purpurea. The database is designed to be user-friendly to retrieve information for the intended users.
STANDARDIZATION OF ORGANIC PRACTICES IN SENNA
(CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA VAHL.)
S.Subha Vasugi, K.Rajamani and K.Kumanan
Horticultural College and Research Institute, TNAU, Coimatore
E mail: email@example.com
A study on standardization of organic practices in Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) was carried out at Medicinal Plants Unit, Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore during June, 2006 January, 2007. Senna is an important medicinal plant used in Unani, Siddha and Ayurvedic medicine as laxative. There is a great demand for organic senna in the international market, which brings the need for standardization of organic production technologies and post harvest practices. Various organic nutrients sources viz., FYM, poultry manure and vermicompost were applied as basal treatment along with foliar spraying of bio stimulants viz., panchagavya, vermiwash, humic acid and PGPMs at different rates. Biostimulants were applied three times as foliar spray at monthly intervals. From the results, it was inferred that application of organic manures viz., FYM (6.25 t/ha) + poultry manure (2 t/ha) + vermicompost (2 t/ha) with foliar spray of panchagavya 2 % + vermiwash 20% + humic acid 0.1% significantly improved the plant growth. Application of FYM 6.25 t/ha, poultry manure 2 t/ha and Vermicompost 2 t/ha recorded the highest fresh and dry leaf yield and dry pod yield along with foliar application of panchagavya (2%), vermiwash (20%) and humic acid (0.1%). The plants which received 6.25 t/ha of FYM, 2 t/ha of poultry manure, 2 t/ha of vermicompost, panchagavya (2%), vermiwash (20%) and humic acid (0.1%) registered the highest leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll content and dry matter production. The same treatment also registered the maximum Sennoside A Content.
CULTIVATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
S.N. Chakhaiyar, Pratima Kumari * and Ani! Kumar
Ecology Lab., P.G. Department of Botany Magadh University,
Bodh Gaya *Department of Botany, Gaya College, Gaya
Historically, plants have played an important role in medicine. Of the estimated 2,50,000 plant species on earth only 2% have been thoroughly screened for chemicals with potential medicinal use. Because native plant habitats destroyed almost daily, many medicinally valuable plants will be gone before the Scientist can even investigate them.The uncontrolled collection and sale of large quantities of plant material from the forest leads to the destruction of many valuable species. Local communities, traditional medicinal herbalists and herbal medicine vendors popularly collect roots, barks and whole shrubs .The more we used medical herb on a commercial scale the more important it is to ensure that they corne from sustainable sources, so that these plants will continue to exist in wild places .The main problem in cultivating medicinal plants as a sustainable agriculture profession, is the lack of organized and regulated markets. The expansion of the number of medicinal plants in cultivation appears to be an important strategy for conservation of medicinal plants in its natural habitat. According to one estimate, of more than 400plant species used for production of medicine by the Indian industries less than 20 are currently under cultivation. Although the Indian l\Iledieinal Piant Board has identified 32 Medicinal plant on priority basis for cultivation on commercial scale. The potential returns to the farmers from cultivation of medicinal plant are reported to be quit high. Rao and Saxena (1994) reported average annual income (per hectare) of rupees 1,20,000 through mixed cropping of high altitude medicinal herbs. Cultivation is clearly a sustainable alternative to collection of medicinal plant from the wild.
INFLUENCE OF BETTALANDS ON ANDROGRAPHOLIDE CONTENT OF KALMEGH (ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA)
P.Ramana and S.K.Patil
Department of Forest Utilization, College of Forestry, Sirsi, Karnataka
Income enhancement in agriculture through integration of new crops and maximal land use strategy seems the necessity for the sustainability of cropping systems. Arecanut cultivators of Uttara Kannada district are enjoying soppina betta privileges for a long time. The major portion of arecanut cultivation and soppina betta lands of district are located in the central hilly (Malnad) zone and that too mostly in Siddapur, Sirsi and Yellapur taluks. In some cases, due to unscientific management, bettalands have been degraded. A field experiments were conducted during 2006-07 at different locations in Uttara Kannada district, Karnataka to study the effect of soppina betta's on herbge yield and andrographolide content of Kalmegh. The HPTLC technique was used for analyzing the active principle in leaf and stem parts of Kalmegh. Among the locations, andrographolide content (%) was highest in Kalmegh grown in degraded bettaland when compare to normal bettaland. It generally varied from 1.86 to 2.05 per cent in leaves. In comparision to leaf, the stem contained lesser andrographolide ranging between 0.28 to 0.65 per cent. It was generally observed that, plant recorded higher herbage yield and andrographolide content in degraded bettaland's when compared to the plant grown in normal bettaland's. Leaf contains maximum andrographolide content than stem.
STUDIES ON SEASONAL INFLUENCES ON GROWTH and ROOT YIELD OF
MEDICINAL COLEUS (COLEUS FORSKOHLII BRIQ)
B.L.Raju, A. Siva Sankar, D. Vishnuvardhan Reddy and M.Raj Kumar
Department of Plant Physiology Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad
Coleus forskohlii Briq., (Lamiaceae), an important medicinal plant indigenous to India is an exclusive source of forskolin, a diterpine present in its tubers is valued for its efficacy in the treatment of glaucoma, congestive cardiomyopathy, asthma, certain cancer, etc. An investigation was carried out to assess the influence of different dates of planting on growth and root (tuber) yield of medicinal coleus at Herbal Garden, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad from July, 2005 to May, 2006 with six dates of planting monthly intervals from first fortnight of July to December. Different dates of planting had a significant influence on the plant height, maximum highest plant height (50.5 cm plant-1 ), number of leaves plant ( 574.71 ), leaf area (6408 cm2 plant-1), maximum LAI of 3.53 at 150 DAP was highest in 10th August planting. Similarly, the crop growth rate was maximum (11.68) in 10th August planting at 105 DAP. In terms of biomass production, leaf dry weight (391.2 g m-2 ), shoot dry weight (395.21 g m-2 ), total plant dry weight (1009 g m-2) was recorded in planting on 10th August followed by the planting on 10th July. The SPAD meter readings and chlorophyll content were highest in 10th August planting with 38.71 at 120 DAP and 1.8 at 120 DAP, respectively.The economical part: root tuber the highest number of roots plant-1 (32.33) and root length (30.20 cm plant-1 ) were observed on 10th August followed by 10th September plantings. Root (tuber) yield also recorded maximum values ( dry weight of 238.33 g m-2 ) with 10th August planting followed by 10th July (220.7 gm-2 ). The highest fresh and dry root yield of 12.23 t ha-1 and 1.52 t ha-1 obtained in 10th August planting.The key enzyme of N metabolism, the Nitrate Reductase (NR) activity was examined during the entire crop growth period and found to vary significantly among different planting dates. It was found to be maximum in 10th August planting. Both in leaves (0.61 mol N02 g-1 f.w. h-1) and roots (0.35 mol N02 g-1 f.w. h-1). The soluble protein content of leaf and roots with 0.195 mg g-1 and 0.17 mg g-1 were highest in 10th August planting. Minimum of 0.11 mg g1 and 0.1mg/g was with Dec planting. The highest NPK uptake (148 46 113 kg ha-1) was recorded with 10th August planting. From the physiological and biochemical observations, it is concluded that planting in first fortnight of July/August are the best planting dates for obtaining higher root yield in Coleus forskohlii.
EFFECT OF ORGANIC INPUTS ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF
WEDELIA CHINENSIS (Obseck.) MERRILL.
T. Yuvaraj, K. Rajamani and R. Balakumbahan
Horticultural College and Research Institute, TNAU, Coimbatore
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Wedelia is an important medicinal plant having several therapeutic utility, specifically for 'Viral hepatitis'. There is growing demand for Wedelia which brings the need for standardization of agro technologies and post harvest practices. The plant is an important source of drug in Indian System of Medicine, especially in Siddha and Ayurveda (Single Plant Therapy). Studies on the effect of different organic inputs in Wedelia chinensis (Obseck.) Merrill., was carried out Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore from June, 2006 to January, 2007. Various organic inputs applied include basal application of farm yard manure, poultry manure, vermicompost and their combinations as well as foliar spraying of pannchagavya 2% + Vermiwash 20% + humic acid 0.1%. the foliar spraying was given five times at fortnightly interval. The study revealed that, the treatments which received combined basal dose of FYM 6.25t/ha + poultry manure 2.5t/ha + vermicompost 2.5t/ha and foliar spraying of pannchagavya 2% + Vermiwash 20% + humic acid 0.1% recorded the highest growth fresh and dry herbage yield and wedelolactone content.
STUDIES ON MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY AMONG OCIMUM
R. Ramesh Kumar, L.P.A. Reddy, K.P. Sastry and B.R. Rajeswara Rao
Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP) - Resource Centre
Boduppal, Uppal (PO). Hyderabad – 500039.
basilicum belonging to family Lamiaceae are annual herbaceous shrubs popularly known as Indian Basil/ Sweet Basil. The essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation from shoot biomass has high commercial value that are used in cosmetic products, Men's Colognes, oral and dental products, as flavoring agents in food industry, in fragrances and aromatheraphy and in traditional rituals and medicines. Diverse germplasm/ genetic stocks of O. basilicum that vary widely in their morphological characters and essential oil composition were collected from natural habitat of central and south India and are maintained
at CIMAP – Resource Centre, Hyderabad.
The genus Ocimum has
inherent tendency to accumulate huge variation due to its out-crossing behaviour. This necessitates morphological characterization of available germplasm lines that will facilitate precise identification of true-to-types and location of new variants generated through outcrossing. So 29 O. basilicum germplasm lines maintained at CIMAP – Resource Centre, Hyderabad were subjected to characterization for morphological features during 2006 – 2007. The study was carried out to assess the nature of variability and to assign descriptive characters to the genotypes for their precise identification.
A STUDY ON ETHNOMEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS AMONG THE
ORAON TRIBE OF CHATTISGARH
School of Life Sciences, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chattisgarh, India
The sea-horse shaped Chattisgarh state come into existence on 1st November 2000 by the Bill "Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act. 2000" passed in the parliament. Until then it was a part of Madhya Pradesh state. It is situated between 17046' to 24005' North latitude and 80015' to 84026' east longitude. According to cencus 1991 Scheduled tribes are 32.46% and Scheduled cast 12.19% of total populatiopn. Chattisgarh is mainly inhabited by different tribal communities. The significant tribes of the state are: Gond, Korwa, Manjhi, Oraon, Munda, Baiga, Nagesia, Kol, Agarias etc. Oraon tribe is very rich in the state, about 30% Oraon tribal population having from the total population of tribes. The life style of Oraon tribal people depends upon the land. Agriculture, hunting, fishing, collection of forest products, bamboo work or labour of any kind is their livelihood. The rich trible areas are Raigarh, Jashpur, Surguja, and Baster district, tribes are still unaware of the scientific and cultural progress of the society and still are being exploited by the people of the modern society. They are used wild plants in the treatment of all types of disease on the basis of their ancestors knowledge and their own practices. The present paper deals with 30 plant species used by the tribes of C.G.for the treatment in different ailments. These species are wild, less known and rare in this area.
ETHNOBOTANICAL INVENTORY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL VETERINARY MEDICINE IN NORADEHI WILDLIFE
SANCTUARY, SAGAR (M.P.)
Anjali Mishra1, Omkar Bawistale1, T.R.Sahu1 and Amita Arjaria2
1Department of Botany, Dr. H.S.Gour Vishwavidiyalaya, Sagar (MP) 470003
2Govt. Autonomous Maharaja College, Chhaterpur (MP)
This paper reports an ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological survey describing medicinal plants used for veterinary purposes by rural communities of Noradehi Wildlife Sanctuary. For a large majority of these resources- poor breeders, ethnoveterinary medicine is the main resort for treating various diseases and ailments of their livestock. Breeders reported 35 medicinal plant species belonging to 16 families. The botanical names, local name, locality, plant parts used, multiple usages, forms of preparation and applications are described here. Herbal remedies were mostly used as decoction, pounded fresh plants or powdered plant material to treat diseases of the skin, eyes, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Administration was oral in most cases, followed by topical applications, and drops to treat ears and eyes. This study contributes to the conservation ex situ of ethnoveterinary knowledge of herdsmen, covering 20 plants species described for the first time for veterinary use in Sanctuary.
ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY TRIBALS OF AMIRGADH IN
BANASKANTHA DISTRICT, GUJARAT
Bhasker Punjani and K.M.Patel
P. G. Centre in Botany, Smt. S.M.Panchal Science College, Talod- 383 215, India.
An Ethnomedicinal field survey was undertaken during 2006-07 with close assistance and cooperation of local tribal informants to study the utilization of indigenous medicinal plants resources for the treatment of common ailments by tribes of Amirgadh, Banaskantha district, Gujarat. In the present paper, some less-known herbal therapies used by tribes of this area are reported along with their local formulations. The present study shows that this area has great diversity of medicinal plants with rich therapeutic application in human disorders and therefore, utilized by the tribals for curing their disorders. Thus, this information gives lead for developing herbal formulations further.
MEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES RELATED TO IK MANAGEMENT OF ANIMAL DISEASES AN OVER VIEW OF MALAYALI TRIBALS, PACHAMALAI HILLS
IN THE EASTERN GHATS, TAMIL NADU
M.S.Swaminathan Research Foundation, Taramani Institutionla Area, Chennai
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Inspite of social, cultural and natural changes, the ancient traditional knowledge systems and their practices are preserved and passed on from one generation to another generation with out any written document. In this context, until today, there seems to have been no serious systematic documentation of medicinal plants related to IK in Pachamalai. This study would fill up the gap in knowledge and documentation. To document medicinal plant species related to Indigenous Knowledge (IK) management of animal diseases a study was made in the Pachamalai Hills. Pachamalai region rich in medicinal plant diversity and it is situated in Tiruchirappali and Salem Districts. A schedule tribe called Malayali lives in these hills. The Pachamalai Hills include different regions namely Kombai, Pachamali, Thenparanadu and Vannadu. Out of 81 villages, 30 villages were selected for the study. The study revealed that 31 IK attributes among the local communities spreading across 95 plant species which are distributed in 85 genera and 44 families. Details on the plant species used to treat various animal diseases, plant parts used, habit of the plant species, local names of the plant species and the family of each species are described in detail.
SOME TRADITIONAL HERBAL REMEDIES FOR CHIKUNGUNYA
AND VIRAL FEVER
Jomy Augustine, Sreejesh KR. Bijeshmon P.P. and Jayakumari, V.
Department of botany, St. Thomas College, Pala, 686574, Kerala, India.
The chikungunya that affected one third of the population of Kerala state though less harmful on other places of its attack levied the Kerala people with more than 350 lives. Due to its non-dangerous face on other areas of its outbreak the government and other health care agencies showed no serious interest on this issue. As it was unnoticed or less carefully managed it suddenly became an issue beyond the control of our governmental as well as non-governmental health care machineries. It affected differentially on various people and this varied appearance was said as because of people's differential immune response to the causative virus. Our envious health care systems like Allopathic medicines and treatments and also ayurvedic applications became evidently failure in controlling this outbreak. On this context the present author with the financial support from the Department of Science and Technology (DST-SS), New Delhi, searched among the traditional practices in preventing the spread of earlier virus diseases like chicken pox, viral fever, small pox, etc and found some crude applications using locally available herbs. They were tested and found successful in preventing the spread of chikungunya. The information was released to the public through TV channels and newspapers. With few exceptions the treatment was found successful for more than 3 lakhs of people. The herbs used for these treatments are Glycosmis pentaphylla, Andrographis paniculata, Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum grattissimum, Zingiber officinale, Allium sativum, Tinospora cordifolia, Pogostemon purpurascens, Curcuma longa, Cumunum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The use and mode of uses of these plants are also explained
KHASI TRADITIONAL HERBAL HEALING
John's Herbal Nursing Home, P.OThangsning,Shillong793015,Meghalaya.
John Wessly Kharduit is a local traditional herbal practitioner who has been practicing since 1983. He hails from Thangsning, a village located about 20 Km from the capital city of Shillong, Meghalaya. He treats many diseases like paralysis, rheumatism, sclerosis, cerebral palsy, diabetes, stroke, blood pressure, burnt injury ,bone fractures, cancer etc. Besides being a healer well known within and outside the State, he has also frequently treated patients outside the country which includes patients from Slovenia, Hong Kong, UK, Germany, etc. Many students, scientists and VIPs have visited his nursing home at Thangsning where he has set up a herbal manufacturing unit. Noteworthy are his effort to promote conservation of medicinal plants and has lead this effort by cultivating medicinal plants in his own land. He has attended many workshops and seminars within the State and has delivered many lectures on the subject of local traditional healings. He has attracted the attention of the public and media on many occasions featuring in the Week magazine in 2002, India Today in 1999 and TV broadcasts. Some of his patients are high profile dignitaries. He has also visited the Rashtrapati Bhavan on the invitation of the president of India, His Excellency, Dr. A.P.J. Kalam in 2003.
ROLE OF INDIGENOUS DRUGS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF OSTEOPOROSIS
C. Murali Krishna, Sanjiv Kumar and Subhash Singh
Central Research Institute for Ayurveda, Patiala, Punjab
Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease and major burning public health problem generally in the old age. The recent study reveals that near about 26 million people are suffering from osteoporosis in India affecting up to 30% in women and 12% in men, with the numbers projected to increase 36 million by 2013. The incidence of osteoporosis is 10-12 years earlier in Indian men and women in compared to west.POMMER coined the term osteoporosis which literally means increased porosity of bones. Osteoporosis is usually a silent, painless disease until a bone fracture occurs. Generally it is characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and progressive bone loss associated with an increased risk of bone fractures of any bone, but the most common sites are the forearm (Colles fracture), spine (vertebral fractures) and Femur (hip fracture). The major risk factor for onset of osteoporosis is use of corticosteroids for longer than six months, certain hormonal disorders, chronic liver disease and gastro intestinal tract disorders and advanced ageing. The cause of osteoporosis in men is chronic alcoholism and loss of testosterone. The clinical presentation of osteoporosis is low back pain, neck pain, loss of height, kyphosis, sunken chest, and with fragility fractures. Generally the diagnosis of osteoporosis is done with advanced tests like DEXA (dual energy X-Ray absorptionmetry), QCT (quantitative computed tomography) and BMD (bone mineral density). In modern medicine this disease is managed with hormone replacement therapy and also with calcium and vitamin D which is considered as anti re-absorptive and stimulation of bone turn over with promising side effects. In recent years, the advancement in the field of phyto-chemistry and clinical trials, it has been proved that the role of certain indigenous drugs like Cissus quadrangularis, Terminalia arjuna, Listea sebifera, Withania somnifera, Emblica officinalis are highly satisfactory in the management of osteoporosis.
ETHNOMEDICINE FOR WOMEN PROBLEMS IN VISAKHAPATNAM DISTRICT,
ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA
M. Hari Babu and T.V.V. Seetharami Reddy
Dept. of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003
An ethnomedicinal exploration was carried out during 2005-2007 in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, one of the peninsular states of India. Visakhapatnam district is one of the North Eastern coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh state which lies between 17°-15' and 18°-32' Northern latitude and 18°-54' and 83°-30' in Eastern longitude. It is bounded on the North partly by Orissa state and partly by Vizianagaram district, on South by East Godavari district, on West by Orissa state and on East by Bay of Bengal with 43 mandals. This district is inhabited by 5,57,572 tribal people comprising of 14.55 percentage of the population. The predominant tribes in the district are Bagata, Konda Dora, Valmiki, Konda Kammara, Mukha Dora, Kotia, Gadaba, Porja and Khond. The area of study yielded 74 emperically accepted and commonly used ethnomedicinal practices including 74 plant species from 72 genera and 47 families with additives. The mode of administration of drugs along with their dosage for curing women problems like abdominal pain during menstruation, abortion, contraceptives, galactagogue, gonorrhoea, hastens delivery, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, menstrual disorders, post patrum problems and fertility by the tribal people and folklore were studied. The taxa identified were enumerated with their Sanskrit, Hindi, English/trade and vernacular names, voucher number and phytotherapeutical practices.
PLANTS TRADITIONALLY USED AS GALACTOGOGUE IN NALLAMALAIS OF KURNOOL DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH
S. Nazaneen Parveen and T. Shali Saheb
Osmania College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh.
Nallamalais are one of the centers for Plant Diversity extended in central part of the Eastern Ghats covering Kurnool, MahabobNagar, Prakasam and small parts of Guntur and Nalgonda districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. Kurnool district is situated between eastern longitudes of 76o58' 76o56' and northern longitudes of 14o54' 16o14'. Two rivers Tungabhadra and Krishna bound the district. About 60% of Nallamalais are situated in Kurnool district. They lie about 113 km in this district length-wise.There are more than 1000 species of vascular plants in these hill ranges, which are being used for various purposes including as medicine.These hill ranges are inhabited by important tribal groups chenchus and sugalis and they possess a treasure of traditional knowledge on medicinal properties of large number of plants.Since ages plants have formed the basis for nutritional requirements of human beings. Breast milk is the natural food for the infant. It is a rich source of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, minerals, vitamins, hormones, growth factors and immunological factors. It is not only beneficial to the infant but also to the mother. Breast-feeding reduces the risk of child hood diseases. Moreover that it enhances the emotional bond that develops between the mother and the child.This paper highlights the plants used as galactogogue by the tribal folk. Tubers, stems, fruits and seeds of many plants such as Holostemma adakodies, Cassia absus, Cyperus rotundus, Costus speciousus, Gmelina arborea are a few examples of galactogogue plants used by nursing mothers of tribals.
SEABUCKTHORN: A WONDER PLANT FOR COLD DESERT
OF TRANS HIMALAYA
T.Parimelazhagan, O P Chaurasia* and S Manian
Dept. of Botany, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore
* Field Research Laboratory (DRDO)
Indian Himalaya is the richest source of biological diversity in the world. Cold deserts are usually confined to high altitudes and circumpolar regions of the universe. Indian cold deserts come under the trans Himalayan zone. Major parts are confined to Ladakh in Jammu Kashmir and Lahaul and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh. Seabuckthorn oil is one of the imperative products obtained from the seabuckthorn seed and pulp is now commercially very important. Ladakh is unique in many respects for its geo climatic conditions, like high altitude, extremely cold and dry weather. Seabuckthorn surviving in Ladakh therefore may have unique chemical compound as compared to those grown elsewhere. So far no attempt has been made to utilize the seabuckthorn grown in cold desert Himalayan regions of India, which hosts unique geo-climatic conditions. Seabuckthorn oil is one of the most versatile natural oil and has been used in Asia for treating various skin conditions. The present investigation reports the physico-chemical properties of oil extracted from the seabuckthorn pulp and seed of this region. The observations indicated that the recovery of the Seabuckthorn oil from this region is high. The maximum oil recovery was observed in the n-Hexane extraction. The total content of carotenoids and Vitamin E in the seed and pulp oil were estimated. The excellent combination of the highest content of carotenoids and Vitamin E makes valuable oil in the commercial market. Further investigation will focus on this substance. Tocopherols have also been identified. It is well known that plants under stress respond with biosynthesis of phytochemicals to enable them to adapt to the harsh environmental conditions. Ladakh being unique in many aspects due to its geoclimatic conditions like high elevation (11,500 ft), extreme cold, dry weather and low humidity. Plants surviving in Ladakh therefore have unique chemical compositions as compared to those grown elsewhere.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF MEDICINAL FLORA
IN NAGAPATTINAM COAST
Dr. T. Ramanathan
Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology Annamalai University, Parangipettai TN.
Coastal plants are little known for traditional medicinal values. The traditional knowledge of folk medicines is now dwindling in an alarming was along with loss of bio diversity especially on the coasts. Hence, there is a need to collect literature available on medicinal plants of the coastal areas. In this regard, the medicinal plants of Nagapattinam (Southeast) were surveyed by ethno botanical study. Of these, various species were tested against HIV, bacteria, fungi and pharmacological activities particularly mosquito larvicidal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti ulcer, anti pyretic, anti cancer, anti diabetic and other studies.
ADANSONIA DIGITATA L: AN AFRICAN TREE WITH INDIAN CULTURAL
LINKAGES AND POTENTIAL INNOVATIVE MEDICINAL USES
A.S. Reddy and Bhargav Brahmbhat
Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat 388 120
Adansonia digitata L., (African Baobab or Monkey Bread Tree), the native of Tropical Africa, is said to be introduced to Indian subcontinent centuries ago. Though this Bombacaceae tree is found today in many parts of India and known by several Indian names, it could not so far establish its population to a significant size. However, it attained veneration among different groups of ethnic and modern people in India. Different uses of this tree were innovated in India, especially in Gujarat, which were not known in its native land. In spite of the fact that some of these uses appear to be promising, they have not become popular due to several reasons; hence need to be screened and be popularised. A thorough ethnobotanical investigation was carried out in different parts of Gujarat for recording the distribution its local uses of this tree. Noting the confirmed repetitive local uses, various medicinal and neutraceutical properties were analysed in the laboratory. Bark extract showed glucose reducing properties in alloxen induced experimental diabetic rats. It also showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus. The leaves proved to contain much higher levels of calcium as compared to many local species known to be rich source of calcium. As the natural regeneration of this tree in India is almost nil, saplings are not available for plantations; experiments were conducted by employing various pre-sowing treatments and could achieve about 85% seed germination rate. Hundreds of saplings were raised and supplied to the local nursery of Gujarat Forest Department for wide plantation and distribution. Highlighting various cultural linkages attached in India with the African Baobab, its local uses and the medicinal as well as neutraceutical properties, the presentation will make a plea for inclusion of this tree in social forestry programmes.
NEEM –THE VILLAGE PHARMACY
R.Santosh Kumar and P. Srinivasa Babu
Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi, Guntur (Dt).
From the ancient days itself, mankind has depended upon the medicinal herbs to treat myriad of diseases, disorders and injuries. The earliest indication of Neem tree being used for its medicinal properties in households began nearly 5000 years ago. Neem is also mentioned in earliest Indian scriptures of medicine the Charak Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. Today, scientific research validates the traditional use of Neem in the maintenance of general health. The Neem tree is regarded as one of Mother Nature's gift to the world. The botanical name for Neem is Azadirachta indica belonging to family Meliaceae. Medicinally all parts of the plant have been used including roots, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Roots are used as antipyretic and as a bitter tonic. Bark is used in snake bite and scorpion sting. Leaves are used as an antiseptic in ulcers and eczema. Dried flowers are used as stomachic. Its fruit contain an alkaloid azaridine, which has anti-inflammatory anti-fungal activity. Neem seed oil is used as stimulant and antiseptic. Various chemicals that are found in Neem are Nimbin, Nimbidin, Nimbidol, Gedunin, Sodium nimbinat, Quercetin and Azadirachtin. These chemicals have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antibacterial, anti-ulcer, analgesic, vasodilator, antimalarial and antihormonal. As the Neem chemicals have several pharmacological actions, they can be used in the treatment of diseases like Hypertension, Diabetes, Digestive problems, Aids, Cancer, Periodontal problems, Inflammatory diseases, Malaria and skin disorders. As the Neem tree has been used in curing so many ailments, it is called as "the village pharmacy" in India.
A STUDY OF ETHNO-MEDICINAL KNOWLEDGE EXISTING AMONG THE FISHERMEN AND WOMEN OF BASANTI-GOSABA OF SUNDERBANS.
Soma Sen and S.C. Santra
Dept. of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal.
Since time immemorial man has made use of plants in the treatment of diseases. It is a known fact that during Vedic period people used herbs for protecting and promoting their health. The pharmacopoeias of many countries of the world even today include a large number of drugs of plant origin. In recent surveys it has been seen that 25%-30% of prescriptions made even in some of the developed countries contain drugs with plant ingredients. There has been fast growing demand on herbal medicine in the last two decades in every branch of medical care. Discovery of ethnic medicine is a fundamental aspect and forms the base of scientific research on medicinal plants in many parts of the world. In the present study, the study area chosen was Indian Sunderbans, thriving with mangrove vegetation, and is a well-known ecosystem of the tropics. For studying the health status of men and women village surveys have been conducted. In addition about 3-4 medicine men staying in those villages were selected and interviewed. Most of the plants were collected immediately from the surrounding and as they are very common were identified on the spot. Most people of Sunderbans live in adverse ecological situation where very little medical facility is available to combat the prevalent health disorders like snake bite, malaria, enteritis etc. The women folk of Sunderban utilize different plant sources to prepare different household remedies to cure their family members from illness. Therefore it is speculated that herbal recepies obtained locally form the major source of cure from many dreadful diseases. In this paper we have specifically focussed on role of herbs on health of men and specially women of Sunderbans, as it is clear that women's health in general and more particularly in India is an outcome of their social existence.
PROMISING HERBS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MENOPAUSAL
SYMPTOMS - A REVIEW
A. Saraswathy, Sridevi Venigalla, A.Arunmozhi Devi
Capatin Srinivas Murthi Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda and Siddha
Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Chennai
Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation and occupies one third of every woman's life. This can occur naturally or caused by surgery, chemotherapy or radiation. The most prominent symptom occurs during menopause is the osteoporosis and the other symptoms include hot flushes, night sweats, irritability, depression, tense, mood changes, insomnia and headache. These symptoms are managed by Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) in Conventional medicine; however the long term use of this HRT is associated with side effects. In Ayurveda, various therapeutic agents like Rasayanas (Immunomodulators/Adaptogens), uterine tonics, nervine tonics like Satavari, Vidari, Yastimadhu, Aswagandha, Dadima, Astisamhara, Jatamansi and Gokshura are used to relieve the symptoms and also to improve the quality of life (QOL) in peri/post menopausal women. Apart from the plants mentioned in Ayurvedic literature, there is some other plants viz., Soy, Red clover, Ginseng, Kava which are rich in estrogen like compounds called Phytoestrogens are also used to relieve the symptoms of menopause. In the present paper description, distribution, major chemical constituents, therapeutic indications, pharmacological and clinical studies carried out with special reference to menopausal symptoms of above mentioned plants are reviewed and discussed.
ETHNO MEDICINAL KNOWLEDGE OF TRADITIONALLY USED EDIBLE
GREEN LEAVES, SEEDS AND FLOWERS AMONG WOMEN - A
K. Gayatri and N. Srividya
Department of Home Science,Sri Sathya Sai University, Anantapur, A.P. 515001
Traditional indigenous knowledge base is essential to the food security and health of millions of people in the developing world. Most of the traditional foods have a strong base of nutritive and therapeutic principles. However, there appears to be a sharp decline in the knowledge levels of this traditional knowledge base. Women being the primary source of traditional food systems, the present study was conducted among non-rural and non-tribal women from middle income families to document their knowledge on the ethno-medicinal uses of traditional foods. To ascertain any transgenerational variation in knowledge levels, women from three different age groups (60 in each category) above 65 years (elderly), 30 to 50 years, and 15 to 20 years (adolescents) representing three generations were included in the study. Information about traditionally used edible green leaves, flowers and seeds were collected using a questionnaire, interviews and focus group discussions. The study helped to document the indigenous knowledge about the medicinal and food uses of these food components, which was contributed mainly by the elderly women. There was a marked difference in the overall knowledge levels between the three generations with the adolescent group showing least level of awareness. A smaller group of 25 elderly and adolescent women from low income group of similar socio-geographic environment were also questioned. It was observed that the knowledge levels were similar among the elderly women, but low income adolescent girls were better equipped than their counterpart from middle income families. Urban settings, higher income and many other factors seem to influence this unfortunate decline in the traditional knowledge levels. Concentrated efforts are, hence, necessary to educate the younger generations about the food and ethno medical importance of, especially the unconventional traditional edible leaves, flowers and seeds. This will ensure better food security, health and a more self reliant community.
PAST AND PRESENT STATUS OF INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS
AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
Department of Botany, University of Pune, Pune 411007.
We have a 3,000 years old story in our country: Charaka the ancient physician was asked by his teachers to get him a plant that was quiet useless, he returned empty- handed saying that there was no such plant. About 35,000 plant species are listed all over the world. Out of these 31,000 plant species are listed in India. India is very rich in her medicinal plant wealth. About three fourth of the herbal drugs are mentioned in the various pharmacopoeiae are grown here in their natural states. It is said that India could be termed as the repository of the medicinal plants of the world and the record of Medicinal plant wealth. It constitutes 2000 types of medicinal and essential oil bearing plants. Several of these plants have been in use for centuries for the medicinal properties. Despite being the wide use of modern medicines, more than 80% world's population while 70% of India's population depends up on herbal drugs. There are about 8 lakhs licensed registered medicinal practitioners of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homeopathy (DISM and H). There are about 7, 000 registered herbal medicine manufacturers and 8, 000 pharmacies that mainly derive their raw material requirement directly or indirectly from natural sources with a turn over of around Rs. 2300 corers/year. According to the recent estimate of Botanical Survey India, 15,000 medicinal plant species occurring in the country of which about 7,500 medicinal plant species are used for medicinal purpose. 500 are commonly used by phyto pharmaceutical industry and 100 are used most commonly used by industry and export. It is also estimated that approximately one third of the plant species listed in Red Data Book of India may have medicinal properties. Indian pharmacopoeia records about 100 medicinal plants and their preparation and most of them are available in India. Some of these plants are also recorded in the pharmacopoeiae of other countries of the world viz. BPC possesses 80% of Indian medicinal plants.Bioprospectives of Indigenous Medicinal plants: Emergences of many powerful technologies, liberalization of trade policy and economic reforms under WTO regime and introduction of new IPRs regime the indigenous medicinal plants have increased great demand in various spheres of science at international level. Among all the emerging technologies of the 20th and 21st centuries Biotechnology (BT), Herbal Technology (HT), Information Technology (IT) and Nanotechnology (NT) have become the most powerful. The current pace of development in BT and IT, HT and NT has impressively high in the industrialized countries. It has lot of scope in crop genetic resources of fruits seeds vegetables etc., in conservation of endangered and endemic plants, in medicinal plants-future drug developments, in ethnopharmacology, in medicinal plants research, in nutraceuticals, in eco dyes, in cosmaceuticals and to transfer the Indigenous Traditional Knowledge (ITK) to BT, HT, IT and NT and in IPRs.
ETHNOBOTNICAL STUDIES OF A PRIMITIVE TRIBE OF CHATTISGARH
KAMAR OF RAIPUR DISTRICT
Mrs. Vaibhav Acharya, Mrs. V.L Sharma, Dr V.K Kanunngo*, Dr. M.L Naik**
Asst. Prof- Botany, Govt. D.B. Girls P.G College, Raipur (C.G)
*Asst. Prof. (Botany) Govt. Science College, Raipur (C.G)
**Co-ordinator and H.O.D. Forestry Bastar Parisar, Jagdalpur (C.G.)
Present study is based on the ethnobotanical studies of a primitive tribe KAMAR of Raipur Distt. (state's capital). Raipur has a dense Sal forest area in South-East and South-West part of Mainpur and Gariyaband Tribal blocks. Kamar is one of the most primitive tribe declared by Govt. of India in 6th year plan. Kamar are mainly reside in remote forest area of Fingeshwar, Churra, Mainpur, Kulhadighat Gariyaband (on Orh hill top) in Raipur. According to Census 2001, 17516 Families of Kamar reside in these areas, in self made thatched, huts, settlements are known as Kamardera their colonies exceeds more than 20 huts. Their life style depend on forest and its produces, collection of NWFPs as Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. (Tendupatta) Bauhinia vahlii L. (Mahulpatta) Shorea robusta Gaertn. (Sal beej) etc and Honey collection. They are the master of making Dendrocalamus strictus Nees. (Bamboo) article (Jhapi, Tatta, Baskets, Supa). For eating they use Oryza rafipogon L. (Wild rice), Paspalam scrobiculatom (Kodo) Panicum sumatrence L. (Kutki), wild leaf vegetable as Cordia dichotoma L. (Buhar), Ficus religiosa L. (young Leaves of Peepal), Chlorophytum tubrosum Baker. (Dongribhaji), Tubers of Dioscorea species L. etc. They utilized wild plants for there elements as Flacourtia indica Merr. (Kakai), Andrographis paniculata Wall. (Bhuineem), Phoenix acaulis L. (Bhuichind), Uraria picta Desv. (Sarapdasa), Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. (Nagin jadi) Gloriosa suparba L.(Jhagharainjadi) etc. they use different wild plant species for fish and arrow poison, fibers, fuel, fodder and socio-religious aspects. Kamar population is superstitious, poor and ignorant but have a deep knowledge about sustainable uses of natural resources. There medicine man is Sirha, Weapon- bow-arrow, primitive agriculture practices Dahiya and Beora. Kamars was on the verge of extinction and started to improve there population after the implementation of Gariyaband Kamar Development Agency.
ANTI-TICK ETHNOVETERINARY KNOWLEDGE IN BUNGOMA DISTRICT, WESTERN KENYA
12Wycliffe Wanzala, 1Ahmed Hassanali, 2Richard W. Mukabana, 3van Lenteren,
J. C. and 3Willem Takken
1 International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P.O. Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya
2 The University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya
3 Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands
Livestock industry is integral to rural livelihoods and culture throughout the Bukusu community in Bungoma District, western Kenya. The industry enhances gender equity, provides household food security, reduces extreme poverty, and maintains ommunity's cultural life, increases household income to improve health, education and agriculture, promotes biodiversity, provides material support and mechanical power for farming and varied domestic uses. Ticks and tick-borne diseases and related secondary infections adversely impede the development of the industry. Anti-tick ethnopractices have been previously shown to provide a basis for identifying and applying potentially useful and locally-suited strategies for sustainable management of livestock ticks. Using non-alienating, dialogic and action participatory approaches, anti-tick ethnopractices data was collected from the community. A total of 154 plants together with 10 non-botanical/botanical-related anti-tick ethnoagents (soap, fish residues, cowdung, cattle urine, soil types, grease, kerosene, ash, magadi soda and sisal juices) were documented. Through non-experimental validation of the collected information by triangulation method, 12 plants were selected from 154 plants for in-depth studies. Integration of these anti-tick ethnopractices in sustainable tick management will locally improve the livestock industry thus giving the impoverished rural economy a fresh impetus following elucidation of scientific rationale of these ethnopractices and deployment of some of them.
SOME TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY JATAPU TRIBE OF VIZIANAGARAM DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH
1. Department of Botany, M.R. College, Vizianagaram
2. Department of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam
The present communication deals with the ethnobotanical and medicinal uses of some plants used by Jatapu tribe of Vizianagaram district in Andhra Pradesh. 42 plant species are widely used in the treatment of different ailments by this tribe. The particulars of the plant parts used, mode of preparation and administration as practiced by Jatapus are given. Most of these herbal medicines are obtained through a combination of various parts of different plants or from a single plant. These herbal drugs are taken along with salt, sugar and other additives. Few plants are also in use in the magico religious beliefs. Application and development of these ethnobotanical medicines requires authentification of field observations through laboratory studies. This information has great potential in the study of the relationship of the active principles of the drugs with the ailments concerned. More and more efforts of this kind are required to document local traditional knowledge. This may lead to the development of potential herbal drugs at cheaper costs and upliftment of socio-economic conditions of the custodians of these prized resources.
STUDIES ON PLANTS USED AS TRADITIONAL MEDICINES BY BHILLA
TRIBE OF MAHARASHTRA
S.Y. Kamble1, S.R.Patil2, S.G.Pawar3, P.S.Sawant4 & Sangeeta Sawant5
1,2& 3 Bharati Vidyapeeth University,
Deptt. of Botany , Research Laboratory, Yashwantrao Mohite College, Pune-38
4 Bharati Vidyapeeth University, College of Ayurved, Pune -43
5 School of Health Science, University of Pune, Pune -07
Since ancient times, plants have been and are being used as medicines, foods agro chemicals, pharmaceuticles by large number of tribal, rural and also urban people. India has more than 300 tribal communities. In Maharashtra there are 20 major tribes. Though there has been good research work on tribal of India, including Maharashtra, some of the tribes and tribal region of Maharashtra have not received proper attention of researchers. Bhilla tribe is one of them and they are inhabited in Dhule, Jalgaon and Nan durbar districts in North Western regions ofMaharashtra.Therefore, in present study, survey of ethno medicinal plants used by Bhilla tribe was undertaken. Analysis of data revealed that a total number of 129 plants species belonging t0119 genera and 69 families of flowering plants and ferns used by Bhilla tribe for medicinal purposes have been described. Of these 37 plant species are used by only Bhilla tribes. Following are the number of plants species, shown in parenthesis, are used by this tribe for curing some important and common diseases. Stomachache / Abdomen pain (8),Cough , Cold, Fever(9),Rheumatism / arthritis(8),Snake bites(7), Scorpion bite(2), Contraceptive( 5), Acidity / ulcer (7), Menstrual complaint (9), Dysentery (7), Abortificient (6), Lactation in women(4), Piles (3), Diabetes (3), Bums(2), Eye problem / conjunctivitis (2) etc. Out of 129 species used by them, 27 species are new reports ofless- known uses of medicinal plants from this region.
DOCUMENTATION OF INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE OF TRIBALS CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS THE UTILIZATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
FOR THE VINDHYAN REGION OF MADHYA PRADESH
R. K. Samaiya*, Y.R. Khare** and M.P. Dubey**
*JNKVV- Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Sagar MP
** JNKVV- KVK, ZARS, Sagar MP
In India vast bio-diversity of medicinal and aromatic plants exists naturally in forest of the various states . The geographical area of Madhya Pradesh is 307.44 Lac. ha. out of which 49 per cent is under cultivation . the majority of cultivated area is under rainfed ,M.P. also has a great diversity in medicinal plants more than 1500 medicinal herbs are being used as medicines. The ayurvedic system of medicines is the part of cultural life and heritage of tribal peoples. The plants are found in different parts of M.P. in different agro climatic zones. Tribal people since ancient times using these herbs against various ailments and serving a lot to the mankind in a big way in the Vindhyan region of Madhya Pradesh. A survey was conducted by JNKVV- Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Sagar (MP)with aim to know the status of tribals indigenous knowledge regarding the use of medicinal herbs for different ailments to men, animals and safe storage of grains of the resource poor farmers of the region. Study revealed that tribals have great wisdom of the various uses of healing herbs viz., Aegle marmelos(L.), corr. Zizyphus maurtiana Lamk, Jasmine arborescens Roxb, Ipomea alba L. , Tagetes erecta L., Caesalpinia crista L., Cissus quadrangularis L., Azadiricta indica A. Juss, Ficus religiossaL., Dalbergia sissoo Roxb, Tectona grandis L., F. Elipta alba (L) Hassk , Eclipta erecta , Euphorbia nerrifolia auct. pl. non L., and Lantana camera L. . The ancient Indian System of Medicine (ISM) is predominantly a plant based material medica making use of medicinal plants . It caters to almost the entire rural population mainly due to scarcity of modern allopathic health care in our remote villages where the tribals had the location specific knowledge of the medicinal curative properties and still they are major source for the supply of the raw drug materials to different pharmaceuticals. Due to fast deforestation rate some of the medicinal plants reached to the verge of extinction or endangered. Therefore it is the need of hour that policy has to be developed for the conservation of the herbs of the villages and the plantation of location specific plant species in agro forestry based medicinal herbs cropping system . Hence, quality planting material be made available to the tribals to meet out the future demand and supply against the various diseases of the villages . This system will be helpful to generate employment and trainings to the youth of thje tribals to maintain the bio-diversity of forest wealth of valuable medicinal plants for the treatment of resource poor peoples of the region.
ETHNOBOTANICAL PROSPECTION FOR IDENTIFYING CHEAPER AND EFFECTIVE DRUG PLANTS
Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Resource Centre, Bangalore
The knowledge on the use of bioresources hidden among the traditional cultures is vital not only for ethnic societies but also for the urban cultures. India is fortunate in having more than ca., 550 ethnic tribes with a vast indigenous knowledge coupled with an amazing diversity of flora and fauna., Today we have information about 8000 medicinal plants used in one way or the other by the tribal communities for all their health care needs. There are recorded ethnobotanical leads for many deadly ailments such as cancer (Xeromphis spinosa, Taxus baccata), Jaundice (Phyllanthus amarus, Zehneria umbellata), diarrhoea and dysentery (Clerodendrum viscosum, Aristolochia saccata), bone fracture (Justicia gendarussa, Cissus quadrangularis, Pothos cathcartii), asthma (Tylophora indica, Globba multifolia), malaria (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Artemisia sp.), leprosy (Plumbago zeylanica, Costus speciosus), cholera (Wedelia wallichii) paralysis (Caladium bicolor), high fevers (Ziziphus mauritiana, Tabernaemontana divaricata), eye diseases (Nepenthes khasiana, kaempferia rotunda) and so on. A few important claims in this direction are discussed in this paper. Anti-fatigue/energizers such as Panax pseudoginseng (Himalayan Ginseng), Trichopus zeylanicus (Aarokya pacha), Janakia arayalpathra, Baccaurea courtallensis, Flemengia vestita (Soh-phlong), Garcinia gummi-gutta (Bilatti – amli), Garcinia indica (Kokam) which can also be used as neutraceuticals have been recorded. Keeping in view of such a vast diversity of medicinal plants for a particular ailment, the author calls for intensive and critical scientific evaluation of these leads so that cheaper, effective and also acceptable drugs for all health care systems be developed. For prioritizing such investigations, it is absolutely necessary to shortlist these 'leads' for specific ailments based on cris-crossing of information through cross-cultural studies (ethnobotanical prospection) among different ethnic tribes both within as well as with other developing nations. As a first step in this direction, development of a 'traditional knowledge database' by all developing countries on similar lines of TKDL (Traditional Knowledge Digital Library) as is being attempted at National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi is essential.. Such a programme of TKDL of NISCAIR not only pin points to the source of traditional information but also helps in patenting of products and sharing of royalties at a later date. Following the Rio Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) and Common Policy Guidelines (CPG), the traditional knowledge and the biological materials can be exchanged among all developing nations for scientific scrutiny of the claims for development of effective cures for all ailments in the region. While such co-operation boosts the economy of the region, at the same time authenticates the ethnobotanical claims from the different nations. Traditional societies who are the custodians of such knowledge systems are to be amply rewarded by sharing benefits/royalties arising from out of sale of drugs/products based on traditional knowledge. Confidence and co-operation of tribal communities at all stages is vital. National and International level conventions for exchange of information among all tribal resource persons/ healers and other knowledgeable persons is also essential. Such cross-cultural ethnic knowledge among different developing nations helps in establishing (a) the species of plants and animals that are used for a specific ailment among different ethnic communities, (b) the number of species common to treat a particular ailment within and between communities, (c) or where diverse species are used which ones are better? Collective and co-operative efforts of all developing nations in the study of cross-cultural Ethnobotany can provide solutions for many such issues and result in establishing safer, cheaper and locally acceptable drugs for many of the ailments rampart among the ethnic communities in the entire region. The vital role of taxonomists in such studies and the need for strengthening the taxonomic base in all developing nations is emphasized.
ANTI HIV ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL HERBS
M. Govinda Rao
Sri Siddhartha Pharmacy College, Nuzvid, A.P
The Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a result of human immuno deficiency virus (HIV) infection that subsequently leads to significant suppression of immune functions. AIDS is a significant threat to health of mankind and the search for effective therapies to treat AIDS is of paramount importance. Several anti-HIV agents have been developed. To overcome the high cost, adverse effects and limitations associated with using chemotherapy for treatment of HIV infection, herbal medicines have been frequently used as an effective therapy by HIV positive individual. The Chinese herbal medicines like Scutellariabaicalensisgeorgi and its identified compounds inhibit infectivity and replication of HIV, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Beijing) conducted clinical trails and experiments with traditional Chinese medicines, ZY-1 and concluded that it is safe, non-toxic and effective medicine in treating AIDS. The national herbs occurring can cure the disease effectively and hence must be developed potentially and can be used as traditional medicines promise a way for an effective and safe treatment.
USE OF HERBS IN ORGANIC MILK PRODUCTION
R. Mallikarjuna Reddy
Associate Professor, Department of Dairy Science
Jawahar Bharati Degree and P.G. College, KAVALI, Andhra Pradesh
Considerable inclination towards organic farming in developed as well as developing countries is growing in the recent years after realization of the impact of pesticide loaded food on health, environmental pollution and land degradation caused due to high input agriculture. Organic farming is a form of agriculture which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. India, being highest producer of milk (more than 100 million tons per annum) in the world, is aiming at the production and export of organic milk. Indian milk producers are basically organic farmers, not by choice but by default, because most of the rural farmers use certain medicinal plants in treating their animals. Application of herbal medicines is an important method to be adopted in the treatment of various diseases of cattle and buffaloes intended for milk production. The BAIF Institute for Rural Development took initiative in studying the scientific application of herbal medicine for treating various animal health conditions. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants against cattle diarrhea and intestinal disorders is studied in our laboratory. Herbal parts from Murraya koenigii could be used to treat repeat breeding; Bambusa arundinacea, Achyranthus aspera and Argyria cuneata for retention of placenta; Horse gram, Moringa oleifera, Murraya koenigii and Aloe barbadensis for anoestrus; Tinospora cordifolia, Aegle marmelos and Adhatoda vasica for Metritis; Mimosa pudica for treating the animals with prolapse of uterus. The success rate of the treatment is 67-85%. To control the diarrhoea and intestinal pathogens six selective plants namely Saccharum atundinaceum, Cissus quadrangularis, Citullus olocynthis Zehneria scabra, Tamarindus indica and Bambusa arundinacea were used against diarrhoea causing bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi, Shegella dysenteriae and Vibrio cholerae. Culture plates are prepared by pouring 15-20 ml of Mueller Hinton medium. In vitro antibacterial activity of plant extracts was tested well-in agar method. The plates are inoculated with 0.2 ml of each plant extract and incubated at 370C for 24 hours. The antibacterial activity of these plant extracts is recorded by measuring the zone of inhibition at the end of incubation period. All the plant extracts used exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli On the other hand, Cissus quadrangularis alone exhibited antibacterial activity against S. typhi, while Tamarindus indicus and Citrus colocynthis inhibited the growth of Shigella. All these medicinal plants showed no effect on the growth of Salmonella paratyphi and Vibrio cholerae.
WOUND HEALING EFFECT OF HERBAL CREAMS FORMULATED WITH
CARISSA CARANDAS L.
Rahul Nair*, Dhanapal.R, Pundi Krishna Reddy, Uma Maheshwari.J,
Satish Kumar.G, Srinivas.M.* and Ashok Kumar C.K.*
*Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, A.Rangampet, Tirupathi, A. P., India.
St.John College of Pharmacy, Yellapur, Hasanparthy (M), Warangal, A. P., India.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate wound healing effect and antimicrobial activity of herbal creams formulated with leaves of Carissa carandas Linn. The crude extract was prepared from leaves by using ethanol (70%v/v).The 3% and 10% cream was prepared by using base (stearic acid, potassium hydroxide, cetostearyl alcohol, liquid paraffin, petroleum jelly, methyl paraben sodium propyl paraben sodium and glycerin).The formulated herbal creams were used to treat wounds inflicted (excision) on experimental albino rats for 21 days. The antimicrobial activity of 3% formulated cream was also carried out by standard cup plate technique using Ciprofloxacin as standard drug. The cream showed very good wound healing activity by excision wound method in rats compared to that of standard drug Nitrofurazone. By the 9th day, the cream containing 3% and 10% of Carissa carandas leaves extract showed 74% and 100% healing respectively. The wound areas in the animals treated with the standard drug, Nitrofurazone showed a 100% healing by the 18th day, indicating that the plant extract, at that given concentration, had a better wound healing property than the standard antibiotic. The use of Carissa carandas in Indian traditional systems of medicine for various skin diseases, such as sores, boils, wound and itching has been justified by this work, as it showed a wound healing potential.
DEVELOPMENT OF HERBAL CREAM WITH WOUND HEALING
AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY
N.P. Yadav*, A Pal, D.U. Bawankule, K. Shankar, M.P. Darokar, S.P.S. Khanuja
The developed formulation is an effective herbal cream to cure cracks in heels, chapped hands and dry skin. It is a herbal formulation, derived from age-old traditional skin recipe containing turmeric (haldi). The cream is non irritant and makes the skin soft and glowing. The formulation has been prepared from a plant extract (Curcuma longa) that is known for its healing activity and basil oil, which has shown a promising anti fungal activity. The active principles have been incorporated into an improved cream base with aloe-vera, so as to render a better acceptability to the consumer and better healing and softness to the skin. Chemical evaluation of formulation the HPTLC fingerprint of the cream was developed and evaluated on the basis of marker compound curcumin present in the plant extract. Biological evaluation of formulation.The wound healing activity of the cream has been checked on Mus musculus and found to be effective. Hydroxyproline shows significant changes in developed formulation, when compared with control. Hydroxyproline is the indirect method for the estimation of collagen formation at the site of wound. The wound contraction was found to be 81.34% in the treated group. The developed formulation exhibit significant wound healing and anti-fungal activity and found to be non-irritant.
NOVEL LIPID NANOSTRUCTURE BASED HERBAL COSMETIC SKIN CREAMS
Ranjita Shegokar* and Kamalinder K. Singh
C.U.Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T. Women's University, Mumbai 400049, India.
Herbal cosmetics are widely accepted for their safety and reliability. Necessity of these cosmetics is increasing, especially for the woman sensitive to allergic reaction or skin irritancy. Herbal skin care products offer balanced combination of natural beautifying and nourishing nutrients and antioxidants easily absorbed by the skin. Nanotechnology dealing with nanosized materials joins different fields of science, biology, physics and chemistry. Nanostructured lipid based carriers take advantage of their dramatically increased surface area to volume ratio. The present research aimed at extending nanotechnology to herbal cosmetics to increased efficacy, better stability and improved user compliance.Nanostructured lipid based herbal skin creams were prepared using high shear homogenization/mixing technique using natural oils, waxes, emulsifiers and safe excipients. Various natural oils known for their emollient effect such as apricot oil, wheat germ oil, sesame oil, neem oil, mango oil and olive oil were used and Natural waxes such as candelila, oiliwax, kokum butter etc.were screened for their suitability to form Nanocream. Essential herbs like Neem, tulsi, sandal wood, were selected. Aqueous extract and oil infusion of herbs was prepared in different oils for incorporation into Nanocream. Natural emulsifiers e.g. egg lecithin, soya lecithin and combination of emulsifiers were optimized by applying 32 factorial designs. Further the developed Nanocreams were characterized for appearance, pH, sedimentation rate, particle size distribution and stability under various stress conditions. Antimicrobial activity test and total microbial load was determined for developed cosmetic creams. Buff colored nanocreams were obtained with pH ranging between 7 to 7.2.The formulations did not show any creaming, cracking or phase separation. Oliwax and bleached kokum butter was found to give nanocreams with better stability as compared to cocoa butter, beeswax, candillia wax and stearic acid which showed phase separation and particle growth. Among the emulsifiers, Olivum 900 gave shiny product with good spread ability. The particle size of creams was 400-900 nm when observed under Hund Wetzlar image analyzer. The product was stable under various stressed conditions and showed minimal microbial load when tested this is because of use of natural antimicrobial agent.Thus herbal nanostructured lipid based skin creams for cometic use have been successfully developed. The Nanocreams were found to be cosmetically elegant, stable and safe with improved functionality.
TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE ON HERBAL COSMETICS & NEUTRACEUTICALS; A CASE STUDY FROM BOLANGIR DISTRICT IN ORISSA (INDIA).
Department of Botany, B.P. College, Boudh (Orissa).762014
Traditional knowledge in form of man plant relationship in Bolangir district of Orissa, on cosmetics involves 45 plant species for dyes and decorations and 37 plant species for their use as freshener. Forty eight plant species enriches the traditional knowledge on different recipes of plant part use as neutraceuticals. Many of the reported usages are of importance for selecting them as resource plants: while selecting plant species for researches in the line of cosmetics and neutraceuticals. Dipteracanthus sffhiticosus L roof . Cassia tora L. seed, Terminalia arjuna bark powder, Aegle mannelos leaf, SyzigiwII seed. are reported for their good value of medicinal beverages with economic importance. Masticatory use of Phoenix sylveslris seed Phoenix acaulis seed suggests new avenue of these resource utilisation. Green Abrus precalorius leaf, Diospyros melanoxylon vegetative buds, Tamarindus indica seed, Lablab purpurius seed and a flower used as neutraceutical during distress to quench thirst and hunger: provides light for further exploitation of this traditional knowledge for getting active principle to ever overcome thirst and hunger.
CLINICAL EFFECT OF 'BIPKN' HERBAL FORMULA ON PSORIASIS
A.L. Research Centre for Ayurveda, VHS campus, TITI Post, Taramani, Chennai 600 113.
The present study was conducted at Central Research Institute. Patiala during 1999-2005. on 90 voluntarily accepted subjects in three groups. each 30 cases. Group-I is consisting of 'BIPKN' formula, and given as Igm Till for 90 days. Group-II, 'BIPKN' formula along with Panchakarma therapy and Group-III consists only Panchakarma therapy. 'BIPKN' formula consists Ba/ruchi. Iswari, Indravaruni. Pippali, KiratatiA"ta, Katukarohini, Khandira. Kantakari, Nimba, Sirisha. Vamana, Virechana, Vastikarma followed by Ghritapana, sneha, sweda, samsarjanakarma were given under Panchakarma therapy. Nasyakarma, Raktamokshana were not conducted. The results reveal that Group-I has shown fair response in 23 (76.67%) cases out of 30 and remaining 07 (23.33%) has shown poor response. Group-II alone Panchakarma therapy has shown fair response in 04 (13.33%) cases out of 30. Remaining 26 cases (86.66%) were shown poor response. Group-III Panchakarma along with 'BIPKN' 24 (80.00%) were shown Good response and 06 (20.00%) have shown fair response. None of the case reported under poor response. By keeping in view of the above study the Panchakarma and 'BIPKIN' herbal therapy was able to cure the disease condition more effectively as compared to the individual therapies. Panchakarma along with internal medicine could have curtailed the psycho stress factors, which are mainly triggering factors for the Psoriasis. Oral medication provided Hepato-immuno-modulation, rejuvenation action by decreasing the cell turnover and improving the body luster, complexion and strength to the body tissues. Finally concludes that the combination effect of 'BIPKIN' formula along with Panchakarma therapy is able to cure the disease better than single therapy.
IPR RELATED TRADITIONAL HERBAL FORMULATION(S) USED IN
TREATMENT OF GERD AND GASTRIC ULCER
Ch. V. Rao, A.K.S. Rawat and P. Pushpangadan
Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, N B R I, Lucknow Uttar Pradesh
E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
During the last few decades, intense search for phytochemicals of potential medicinal importance is being pursued throughout the world. The traditional system of medicine in which plant derivatives are the main ingredients has gained worldwide recognition and popularity. The traditional system of medicine accorded a major role in its primary health care system towards achieving the goal "health for all". The phytochemicals present in plants play a key role in their efficacy for the prevention or treatment of diseases and have tremendous impact on the health care system. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has become a common disorder in the USA and Western Europe in recent decades. GERD has a multifactorial pathogenesis, including transient relation of the lower esophageal sphincter, presence of hitatal hernia, delay in gastric emptying, antral dysfunction, and presence of gastric acid secretion. A latest study found that 71% of adult population in major Indian cities suffers from heartburn and was becoming the single most important factor behind the rise in GERD. The most commonly used drugs (Lansoperazole, omperazole, esomeprazole, and rabeprazole) at the present time have potentially serious adverse side effects. Plant extracts are among the most attractive sources for developing new drugs and have been shown to produce promising results in the treatment of gastric disorder. Flavonoids are naturally occurring substances in plants that are thought to have positive effects on human health with profound importance in preventive medicine. The IPR related ethnobotanical use of Utleria salicifolia was recorded from the Malasar, Kadar and Muthuvam tribes inhabiting these areas. These tribes call Utleria salicifolia as "Mahali kizhangu". 'Mahali' refers to the Hindu Godess of wealth "Mahalekshmy' and 'Kizhangu' root tubers. Scientifically proved and IPR protected herbal formulations from Utleria salicifolia showed protective action against oxidative damage of tissues, inflammation, ulcers in rats potentates the therapeutic use in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
BIO-PIRACY AND PROTECTING TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE IN INDIA
G. Prasad Babu1 , P. Sairam Reddy2 and Ch.Paramageetham3
1 Department of Botany, S.V .University, Tirupati
2 JK Agri-Genetics Limited, IVth Floor, Varun Towers, Begumpet, Hyderabad
3Dept. of Microbiology, S.V.U.P.G. Centre, Kavali, Andhra Pradesh
During ancient days, all the medicines were being prepared either from the whole plant or from the specific parts of the plant. Even today, a huge number of drugs are developed from plants. The majority of these involve the isolation of the active ingredient (chemical compound) found in a particular medicinal plant and its subsequent modification. Currently, there are about 8000 plant species being used in herbal medicines, in which 1700 are for ayurvedic usage, 1,100 are for siddha, over 750 in unani and near 300 are in amchi or Tibetan school for treatments. These traditional knowledge systems have started to disappear in the due course due to the unavailability of scientific data to prove its efficacy. Over the past few years, enormous research has been taken place to understand the toxic effects and the efficiency of active principles during the course of treatment, resulting a wide global recognition and acceptance in several critical treatments while attracting the major attention from several pharmaceuticals. Several pharmaceutical companies started protecting the intellectual property on plant derived products and their application under patent regime to obtain commercial monopoly. In the process, source of the ethno-botanical knowledge of the plant derived product is completely ignored in commercial terms. This situation led to the 'bio-piracy', wherein that there will be no return to the knowledge holder for sourcing the traditional knowledge of the natural product. Bio-piracy is a major issue in developing countries due to lack of strong product patent regime.This review discuss about the status of protecting the traditional knowledge under current Indian patent regime, TRIPS, CBD, UPOV.
NANONEEM®: A NANOTECHNOLOGY BASED HERBAL
Shruti Dhuru, Pratima. A.Tatke and K.K. Singh
C. U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T. Women's University, Santacruz (W),
Mumbai 400049. Email: email@example.com
Vaginal spermicides play an important role in limiting the family size, especially in developing countries. Chemical agents have been tried as spermicides but are not popular, due to high failure rates and side effects. Nonoxynol-9 the only commercially available spermicide, suffers from side effects of vaginal irritation on prolonged use. Though Neem oil has been reported for its spermicidal properties but is cumbersome to use and no commercially viable formulation is available. NanoNeem Emulgel was found to be compatible with the acidic pH of vagina easily water washable, having good spreadability index and high mucoadhesive strength with drug content of 95.12 102.22%. NanoNeem released the drug within one hour and showed first order release.ESEM showed the presence of neem oil as fine globules with particle size of in the range of 200 -800 nm. NanoNeem was found to be stable and maintained its physical properties with no significant change in drug content when stored at 25°C/60% RH for 12 months and at 40°C/75% RH for six months.NanoNeem showed fast in-vitro spermicidal effect within 15 min. In-vivo antifertility effect was observed to be 100% in rats as compared to Gynol II gel containing nonoxynol-9 which showed only 67% activity.None of the animals developed any overt clinical signs, genital swelling, redness, vaginal discharge during irritation studies. NanoNeem with score of 3.0±1.0 was found to be safe as compared to Gynol II which showed vaginal irritation with unacceptable score of 10±3.0. Fertility of all the treated animals was unaffected and was restored immediately after cessation of the treatment, there was no effect on neonatal survival nor pup development.
THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF MOMORDICA TUBEROSA IN NON-INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS (NIDDM) SUBJECTS
J. Radha and M.Srijaya
Sri Sathya Sai University, Anantapur Campus,AP,India.
The entire edifice of ancient Indian medicine is based on the concept of a fundamental identity between man and nature. Plant foods possessing hypoglycemic activity appear to hold promise as potential anti diabetic agents. Keeping in view the above observations, the efficacy of Mamordica tuberosa was studied. The objective of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of Momordica tuberosa in NIDDM subjects. The study designed involved feeding of dried Momordica tuberosa powder in the raw form for a period of 30days along with the normal meals. Fasting blood samples were analysed for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, protein, creatinine, sodium and potassium. Results revealed that there was significant reduction [p<0.01] in the serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. The change in the serum lipoproten levels was appreciable in comparison to the oral hypoglycemic drugs and in the case of serum minerals; the changes observed were only to some extent. The above results are indicative of the fact that this natural tender vegetable, which is easily available and inexpensive, can be extensively used as one of the food adjunct in maintaining normal blood glucose levels of NIDDM subjects.
CISSAMPELOS PARIERA EXTRACT ACT AS ANTITUMOUR AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL AGAINST N- NITROSODIETHYLAMINE INDUCED HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA IN RATS
1G.D.Reddy, 2R Kartik, 2Ch.V.Rao, 3M.K.Unnikrishnan and 2P Pushpangadan
1Dept of Pharmacology, CRIA, Kolkata, W.B.
2National Botanical Research Institute (CSIR) Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow
3College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Madav nagar, Manipal, Karnataka
The Aqueous ethanolic whole plant extract of Cissampelos pariera (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw) were administered to animals significantly inhibited hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and CCl4 (promoter) in a dose dependent manner. Their effect on tumour incidence, levels of liver cancer markers and liver injury markers evaluated the anticarcinogenic activity of the extract. Animals treated with single injection of NDEA (200mg/kg bw. ip) and CCL4 (3ml/kg bw/week. sc) for 6 weeks group showed 100% tumour incidence. The level of γ-gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) in both serum and liver was found to be elevated in tumour bearing animals, while they were significantly reduced upon treatment with treated group. Serum levels of Aspartate aminotransaminase (SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (SGPT), and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which are markers of liver injury, were elevated in groups treated with NDEA and CCL4. Administration of plant extract recuped back to near normal in a dose dependent manner. Animals treated with NDEA and CCL4 group significantly elevated tissue levels of drug metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathione peroxidase (Gpx). Upon treatment with extract significantly reduced these levels in a dose dependent manner. The level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) markedly increased in NDEAandCCL4 treated groups, which was brought back to near normal by C. pariera treatment. In contrast the activities/levels of the Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase status in the liver were decreased in NDEA and CCL4 administered animals, which was recouped back to near normal upon treatment with C. pariera extract. Histopathological studies of liver tissues showed a gradual development of normal architecture upon treatment with the extract and levels of marker enzymes indicated that the extract offered a good antioxidant and greater protection against chemical carcinogenesis induced hepatocarcinogenesis.
EFFECTS OF EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES AND POTENTILLA FULGENS L. EXTRACT ON MICE RENAL MORPHOLOGY: ULTRA STRUCTURAL STUDY
D. Syiema and S. Majawb
a Dept. of Biochemistry, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793022, Meghalaya
b Dept. of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, North Eastern Hill University,Shillong
Long-standing diabetes mellitus is associated with increased diabetic complications including the renal structural degeneration under the influence of diabetes. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of experimental diabetes on mice renal ultra structure, and also to evaluate the reversal rate of the renal structural alterations by Potentilla fulgens L. Tap roots of Potentilla fulgens L. is traditionally used by local practitioners of Khasi Hills, Meghalaya and has been reported to possess anti-hyperglycemic activity. The crude methanolic extract (250mg/kg) of the roots was given to the diabetic mice through the intra-peritoneal (i.p.) route for a period of 4 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, kidneys were compared for gross changes which include kidney weight and its ultra structural study using Transmission Electron Microscope. The mean kidney weight was significantly higher in the experimental diabetes group than in control and extract-treated groups. The ultra structural examination revealed chromatin condensation and distortion of nuclear structure implying the sign of apoptosis in diabetic mice which was significantly reversed in extract-treated mice.
ANTI-MALARIAL ACTIVITY OF STRYCHNOS POTATORUM L.F.
Y.N. Seetharam* and **P.B. Mallikharjuna
*Department of Botany, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106
** Department of Botany, Government Degree College for Women, Kolar.
Seven alkaloid fractions have been isolated from seeds of Strychnos potatorum. Structure of two have been elucidated and identified as Diaboline and 12 Hydroxy,11 Methoxy Diaboline. Antimalarial activity has been tested for all the seven fractions.Diaboline and 12 Hydroxy, 11 Methoxy Diaboline have shown good inhibitory activity on Chloroquin Resistant Plasmodium falsiparum.
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF "MICHELIA NILAGIRICA" AGAINST ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED MYOCARDIAL OXIDATIVE STRESS
S. Raja, S. Subramanyam, G. Sampath Ayappa, Md. Muddassir A.A. Khan and Ashfaqullah
Bharat Institute of Technology Pharmacy, Mangalpally (V), Ibrahimpatnam,
Ranga Reddy District, Andhra Pradesh 5 01510. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
The cardiovascular disease is a heterogeneous group of disorders that affects the heart and blood vessels. The diseases are characterized by angina pectoris, hypertension, congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction (heart attacks), stroke, and arrhythmia. There is now considerable biochemical, physiological and pharmacological data to support a connection between free radical reactions and cardiovascular tissue injury. Evidences show that these disease conditions are directly or indirectly related to oxidative damage and that share common mechanisms of molecular and cellular damage. Aerobic cells are endowed with extensive antioxidant defense mechanisms including low molecular weight scavengers and enzymatic systems which counteract the damaging effects of oxygen species. However when the balance between these species and antioxidants is altered, a state of oxidative stress results, possibly leading to permanent cellular damage. Natural antioxidants are gaining more importance as they are safe and our nature is rich in these constituents and are present on different parts of the plants. Michelia nilagirica (family- Magnoliaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant and is found growing wild as a garden escape at elevation of 5000-6000 ft. In ethnomedicine this plant is used for heart tonic, diuretics, hypnotic and sedative, diabetes and liver diseases. Pharmacological studies have confirmed its uterine stimulant effect, antispasmodic activity and estrogenic effect. The present study was aimed to elucidate the antioxidant effects of aerial parts of ethanolic extract of Michelia nilagirica on tissue in isoproterenol induced myocardial oxidative stress in rats. The toxicity study was performed and the animals did not show any symptoms of toxicity and mortality upto 3000 mg/kg p.o., in mice. Wistar albino rats (200-250g) were fed plant extract orally in two different doses (100 and 200mg/kg BW) for 30 days. Myocardial oxidative stress was induced by isoproterenol (85mg/kg,s.c.,two doses at 24hr interval) in control rats and after 30 days of plant extracts feeding. Isoproterenol injection of control rat hearts induced a myocardial oxidative stress was evident by a significant (P£0.01) rise in myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) along with reduction of myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were observed. However, a significant (P£0.01) increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and TBARS levels in plasma. The ethanol extract of Michelia nilagirica at 200mg/kg treated group prevented the oxidative stress by significantly (P£0.05) reduce in myocardial TBARS and myocardial GSH along with rise in SOD, CAT and GPX enzyme levels. Depletion of LDH and TBARS levels in plasma were significantly (P£0.05) in the plant extract (200mg/kg) treated rats. It can be concluded that, the ethanol extract of Michelia nilagirica (200mg/kg) prevents myocardial oxidative stress induced by isoproterenol.
POSSIBLE ROLE OF NORADRENERGIC AND SEROTENERGIC SYSTEM IN THE ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA LINN.
Santh Rani Thaakur., Hima Bindu N.S., Deepti.B and A. Krishnaveni
Division of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology,
Sri Padmavathi Mahila Visva Vidyalayam, Tirupati. 517502, AP, INDIA
Achyranthes aspera Linn. has been mentioned in the manuscripts of Ayurveda and Chinese medicines. In Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh tribals use the plant in treating epilepsy and the Payasam or Kheer made of seeds in milk is used as a good remedy for diseased brain.Objective: Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera leaves and compared with fluoxetine and imipramine. Materials and Methods Achyranthes aspera ethanolic extract was administered at a dose of 50,100,200mg/kg, p.o once daily for seven successive days to separate groups of young male Swiss albino mice. The immobility periods of control and treated mice were recorded in forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) and compared with fluoxetine and imipramine. Effect of noradrenaline, serotonin on the extract induced antidepressant activity was studied on 7th day. Achyranthes aspera produced significant antidepressant_like effect at dose of 100 and 200mg/kg and results were comparable with standard drugs fluoxetine and imipramine. Achyranthes aspera ethanolic extract at a dose of 200mg/kg significantly potentiated serotonine induced head twitches and potentiated noradrenaline induced toxicity. The results of present study indicate the involvement of noradrenergic and seretonergic systems in the antdepressants like activity of Achyranthes aspera.
HERBAL CONTRACEPTIVE VAGINAL CREAM: SPERMICIDAL ACTIVITY
AND EVALUATION OF ITS SAFETY
Heeshma C.Shah, Medha C. Patel, Pratima. A.Tatke and K.K. Singh
C. U. Shah College of Pharmacology, S.N.D.T. Women's University, Mumbai 400 049,
The rise in population in developing world is overwhelming that intensifies the need for effective birth control measures. The synthetic agents available produce severe side effects, thus there is a quest for safe and alternative means like spermicidal agents from plant origin. Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) is one of the most versatile medicinal plants having a wide spectrum of biological activity.Water washable vaginal cream of neem extract showed spreadability index of 8.02 gmlsec with pH of 4.70. The formulation was compatible with acidic pH of vaginal secretions. Neem cream showed in vitro immobilization of sperms within 2 minutes and 100% in-vivo contraceptive efficacy. Repeated intravaginal administration of cream for 14 consecutive days did not alter the hematological and serum biochemical parameters and no toxicity was observed in any of the vital organs of rabbits. The formulation showed no irritation as compared to Nonoxynol gel which showed marked inflammation of the vaginal mucosa.Safe, Effective, User friendly, pharmaceutically elegant, contraceptive vaginal cream of Neem extract has been successfully developed and has good potential as a safe alternative to the currently available synthetic hormone based contraceptives.
CLINICAL EVALUATION OF A POLYHERBAL FORMULATION AS A PROPHYLACTIC AGENT IN VISHAMA JWARA VIS-À-VIS MALARIA
Research Officer, A.L. Research Centre for Ayurveda, VHS Medical Campus,
TTTI Post, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, E mail: email@example.com
Malaria is one of the, most important major tropical disorders and most wide spread disease of the world. Malaria is relapsing febrile illness characterized by chills, rigors, headache, nausea, prostration, anemia etc. it is caused by the genus plasmodium (species of falcifarum, vivox, ovala, malariae) and transmitted to human beings by female anopheles mosquito. Occasionally it may be transmitted by blood or across the placenta to the baby. Plasmodium vivox malaria is wide spread in tropics and subtropics. Though the disease pathology and knowledge about the causative factor are well known, controlling eradication of the disease is difficult to achieve. Recurrence is the commonest phenomenon in endemic areas. The fever (jwara) with irregular onset (vishama arambha) and remission (visarga) is called as Malaria (Vishama jwara). Vishama jwara can be compared with Malaria based on the irregular onset and remission. It is known as abrata jwara in Vedas. Incidence of the disease, in spite of advanced chemotherapy is steadily increasing and number of deaths as well. WHO in the wake of resurgence reaffirms malaria eradication as the ultimate goal of the program and control as an intermediate objective. The problem of malaria has acquired new dimensions such as resistance of vectors to chemical insecticides and drug resistance strains in strains of P. vivox and P. falciparum. Chloroquin resistance and insecticide resistance in the vector species continued to be serious obstacles in the control of the Malaria and alternate strategies have to be considered. Study carried out with a poly-herbal formulation called 'Indukanthaghritam' on 65 number of patients, of which, 35 (71.43%) patients shown Good response, 14 (28.57%) patients did not show any response and 07 patients LAMA and 09 patients dropped out from the study due to irregular follow-up. On statistical analysis the efficacy of the drug found highly significant (P<0.001) in preventing Malaria. To create evidence based therapy, assessment of serum immunoglobulins done before and after treatment. Details will be discussed in full paper.
EFFICACY OF BAEL FRUIT (AEGLE MARMELOS CORREA.) AND LEAF
POWDER INCORPORATED THERAPEUTIC FOOD SUPPLEMENTS
AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETES
Ilamaran, M.*, G. Hemalatha and P. Banumathi
Home science College and Research Institute, T N A U, Madurai, Tamil Nadu
Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to relative insulin deficiency or resistance as well. Approaches to control or prevent hyperglycemia are central to the management of diabetes. Medicinal herbs are used as traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes since time immemorial. Hence the present study was carried out to assess the effect of bael on blood glucose levels of type 2 diabetes. Sixty Type 2 diabetic subjects were selected and divided into six groups. The subjects were given a pack of ragi and wheat based therapeutic foods incorporated with bael fruit powder and leaf powder in the form of ready mix for every 15 days. The fasting blood glucose, post prandial blood glucose and serum insulin levels were estimated initially, after 45 days and 90 days of supplementation of bael incorporated therapeutic foods to selected diabetic subjects. Significant reduction in post prandial blood glucose levels was found in the experimental groups. After administration of therapeutic foods, the final insulin levels increased gradually. Supplementation of bael leaf powder incorporated therapeutic foods with oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose level and increase in serum insulin levels followed by bael leaf incorporated foods without OHA and fruit powder incorporated therapeutic foods with OHA.
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HERBAL DRINKING WATER ON SOME HUMAN PATHOGENIC MICRO ORGANISMS
R. Chitra and K. Rajamani
Horticulture College and Research Institute, TNAU, Coimbatore
E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
About 80 % of all illnesses in developing countries are water related e.g. cholera, dysentery, diarrhea etc. Herbal traditions throughout the world have used infusions and decoctions of herbs in drinking water since the dawn of recorded medical history. In the present study drinking water was made with the root extract of Piper longum and bark extract of Caesalpinia sappan. It is prescribed as a tonic for diarrhoea and dysentery. Indian Long Pepper (Piper longum), or Pippali, indigenous to North-Eastern and Southern India and Sri Lanka, is a powerful stimulant for both the digestive and the respiratory systems and has been shown to have a rejuvenating effect on the lungs. The root is used for bronchitis, stomachache, and diseases of spleen, and tumors. Study was taken up to assess the quality of drinking water on treatment with Piper longum and Caesalpinia sappan extracts. Among the various concentrations, 0.5 g Piper longum root extract and 0.5 g Caesalpinia sappan bark extract treated with drinking water recorded high antibacterial activity. Herbal drinking water is aimed to reduce the bacterial activity in water to control the water related diseases. However, it is not a medicine and when consumed regularly it helps eliminate acid waste.
BOTANICALS IN THE CONTROL OF BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF POMEGRANATE
C. P. Manjula and A.N.A. Khan
Department of Plant Pathology, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore
A bacterial disease on pomegranate appeared in a devastating form in many pomegranate orchards of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and other major pomegranate growing areas of India. The disease caused serious losses in these places on different varieties. Symptoms of the disease were in the form of minute water soaked lesions which later turned brown surrounded by diffused water soaked zone or yellow halo on both fruits and leaves. As the fruits increase in size, the lesions also increased in size leading to 'L', 'Y' or star shaped cracking within the lesion. Severely affected fruits split open, partially exposing the arils. The lesions appeared on the branches especially in the nodal regions, which lead to die-back of the twigs and death of the infected branch. Affected plants appeared unthrifty, weak and later the plants dry-off. The detailed morphological, physiological, cultural, biochemical and pathogenicity tests of the pathogen revealed that the bacterium causing the disease was Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae and it affected all the parts of the plant severely producing different types of symptoms. Laboratory assay on the effect of different plant extracts and antibiotics under in-vitro conditions against the pathogen revealed that the antibiotics were more effective when compared to the botanicals (Inhibition zone of 19.0Mm-Paushamycin and 11.0Mm-Kolangi). The botanicals were effective under in-vitro conditions when compared to field trials. In the field trials conducted in managing the disease it was observed that the antibiotics were again more effective than the botanicals.
DEVELOPMENT OF HERBOSHEILD® - A NOVEL HERBAL VAGINAL CONTRACEPTlVE GEL
Shruti Dhuru. Pratima. A.Tatke and K.K. Singh
C. U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T. Women's University, Santacruz (W), Mumbai - 400049. Email: kksingh35@Iediffmail.com
Vaginal spermicides play an imporantant role as contraceptive measure to control population, especially in developing countries Today only nonoxynol-9 is marketed as a spermicide that too suffers from side effects of yaginal irritation on prolonged use. The present work aimed at design, development and eyaluation of a Vaginal HerbOsheild Contraceptive Gel. The HerbOsheild yaginal gel was prepared by incorporating hydroalcoholic seed extract of Annonoa Squamosa into suitable gelling agent to obtain water washable gel with good spreadability index and high mucoadhesive strength. Herbosheild had a pH in the range of 4.5 - 5.5 which was found to be compatible with the acidic pH of the vagina. The The assay of the gel using validated HPTLC method showed that the formulations had 95-98% of the extract. In vitro drug release in simulated vaginal fluid showed fast initial release with 50% of 20 min with first order release pattern. In vitro spermicidal activity determined using Sander Crammer Immobilization test showed blank gels did not show any spermicidal action while Herbosheild sheild Gels were very effective as spermicidal agents and inhibited 100% sperm motility within 30 sec. The HerbOsheild® vaginal gels were found to be highly potent spermicidal agents. The Herbosheild gels showed statistically significant spermicidal effect in vivo in rats with p<0.05 as compared to control. The antifertility effect was observed to be 100% in female rats as compared to only 67% of the marketed Gynol II gel. Thus HerbOsheild Vaginal gels showed much better efficacy as compared to the marketed gel. In vivo vaginal irritation studies ofherbosheild® were carried out in rats. None of the animals developed any overt clinical signs, genital swelling, redness, vaginal discharge during irritation studies. Herbosheild with score of 3.0±1.0 was found to be safe as compared to Gynol II which showed vaginal irritation with unacceptable score of 10.0 ± 3.0 Fertility of all the treated animals was unaffected and was restored immediately after cessation of the treatment, there was no effect on neonatal survival nor pup development Thus HerbOsheild vaginal contraceptives have great potential to be used as effective female contraceptive as they have shown better safety and 100% efficacy as compared to the currently available marketed formulation.
INHIBITION OF CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTIVE ENZYMES BY TALINUM PORTULACIFOLIUM (FORSSK) LEAF EXTRACT
** Mohana LakshmiS., Nageswara Rao Thalapaneni*, and Subhash C. Mandal*
Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Sreevidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Tirupati, A. P
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata
** E mail: email@example.com
The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of Talinum portulacifolium (METP) leaves on carbohydrate digestive enzymes was performed and its activity on glucose uptake in isolated rat hemidiaphragm was also established.To investigate the effect of METP on carbohydrate digestive enzymes, a-glucosidase inhibitory assay was carried out using mouse small intestine homogenate as a-glucosidase solution and also yeast -amylase inhibitory assay was performed. Effect of METP on glucose utilisation was evaluated by estimating glucose uptake in isolated rat hemidiaphragm. METP effectively inhibited -glucosidase and a-amylase, In the a-amylase inhibitory assay METP (100-1000 µg/ml) showed dose dependent inhibition and standard acarbose (50 µg/ml) showed 50.33% inhibition. METP showed both sucrase and maltase inhibitory activity 86.00 %, 90.66% respectively at 500 µg/ml. The glucose uptake in the hemidiaphragm was significantly increased by METP (17.16 ± 0.20) when compared to the control group, At the same time uptake was lower than insulin alone (64.2 ± 0.61). The total polyphenolic content of METP was measured and it was 39 µg gallic acid /100 g of fresh weight material. These results suggest that METP has significant inhibitory activity on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and increases the peripheral utilization of glucose. It may act as a potent antihyperglycemic agent.
IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ANTIOXIDANT EFFICACY OF MULBERRY
(MORUS INDICA) L. (ORAL) ANDALLU BONDADA
B. Andallu*, S.Mahalakshmi, A.V. Vinay Kumar**
.*Department of Home Science, Satya Sai university, Anantapur.
Depto. of BioTechnology,St. Joseph's Engineering College, Chennai
The study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant efficacy of mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves which are nutritious and palatable. Erythrocyte membrane of human volunteer was used as peroxidation model system in vitro while aged human volunteers served as subjects for in vivo assessment. Ethanolic extract of mulberry leaves (Morus indica L.) was tested for the antioxidant efficacy in vitro using butylated hydroxyl toluene as positive control. Mulberry leaf extract displayed scavenging activity against radicals i.e 2,2-diphenyl-I-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide and superoxide and inhibited FeS04-induced lipid peroxides and hydroperoxides in erythrocyte membrane model in a concentration dependent manner. This is supported by significantly decreased lipid peroxidation in plasma and erythrocytes, significantly elevated levels of non enzymatic antioxidants (3 carotene, vit. A, C & E and ceruloplasmin) in serum and significantly elevated activity of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione-s-transferase and reduced glutathione) in erythrocytes in mulberry leavestreated aged subjects. In conclusion, mulberry leaves possess antioxidant properties and the effect is a result of synergistic action of antioxidant phytochemicals i.e carotenoids, flavonoids, moracins etc. present in the leaves. The findings from this study suggest that the leaves may be prescribed as adjunct to dietary therapy and drug treatment for controlling oxidative stress.
EXPLORATINATION OF SOME EDIBLE PLANTS AS POTENTIAL
Government Polytechnic for Women Kadapa-516002
In the current investigation, methanol precipitable solids from whole leaves of Aloe Vera L. and white mustard mucilage from whole seeds of Sinapis alba were evaluated individually and in combinations for its physical properties and compared with the other polymers HPMC and CP 934. To achieve improved bioavailability of diltiazem, Novel buccal adhesive tablets in cup and core fashion designed to achieve unidirectional release towards mucosa were prepared in a three-stage process using specially fabricated punches. The adhesive cups were studied for its shear, tensile and peel strengths by specially designed apparatus using excised bovine and porcine buccal mucosa as model substrates. In vitro dissolution studies using USP XXII eight-spindle dissolution apparatus and ex vivo permeation through porcine buccal mucosa in a Franz diffusion cell exhibited Higuchi diffusion kinetics. Histopathological studies showed no remarkable damage of buccal mucosa by the NBATs. In vivo studies were conducted on anaesthetized male New Zealand albino rabbits, estimated by reversed phase HPLC and its pharmacokinetics were compared with the oral and iv bolus injection. NBATs released the diltiazem in sustained fashion with Cmax 74.6, Tmax 3.5 hr, t1/2 4.36 hr. The NBATs prevented salivary scavenging effect and exhibited 82.1% bioavailability.
TURMERIC MITIGATES ALCOHOL SUPPRESSED MAMMALIAN CELLULAR NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE ACTIVITY.
K. Vijaya Kumari, Smt. M. Chaya Ratan, B. Johanna Rass, P. Jacob Doss *
A. Bujjamma and M.R. Rao*
Women Development, Child Welfare & Disabled Welfare Department,
Govt of A.P. 1335/H, Road NO:45, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad - 500 033.
* Dept. of Zoology, S. V. University, Tirupati – 517 502.
Tumeric is well known for its medicinal values. Nitric oxide (NO) is assigned various physiologic functions in the body and is produced by the action of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We measured the selected mammalian cellular NOS activity in the presence of tumeric and alcohol separately and inormbination. Tumeric inlutions of 1: 1, 1: 10 did not alter the cellular NOS activity, where as alcohol in concentrations of 10% and 20% inhibited rat endothelial, smooth muscular, macrophate and lymphocyte based cNos activity significantly and the turmeric reverted the alcohol inhibited rat cellular Nos activity. As the enzyme Nos is calcium, calmodulin dependent one, alcohol by interacting with Ca2 / can may impair the rat cellular Nos activity and that the turmeric by exerting its antioxidant property, in part may afford protection against the alcohol affect on rat cellular preparations.
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF STEM
BARK OF MORINGA OLEIFERA
Santanu Saha, Chandrashekar. K.S., Arun.B.Joshi, Ajay Thakur, D. Satyanarayana2
NGSM Institute of Pharmaceutical SciencesDeralakatte, Mangalore
Moringa oleifera Lam known in the vernacular as "Shajna" belongs to the family Moringaceae, distributed in the sub-Himalayan ranges of India, Sri-Lanka, Mexico, Arabia, and South Western Africa. From the literature survey, it was revealed that many phytoconstituents like triterpenoids, alkaloids, sterols, resins, amino acids and saponins were isolated and characterized from the whole plant. Various pharmacological activities like anticancer, antifertility, antiulcer, antibacterial activities were studied. It was learnt that no substantial work on the stem bark of Moringa oleifera was carried both in the chemical investigation and pharmacological activities. Hence an effort was made to investigate the chemical constituents and to screen for anti-inflammatory activity of the petroleum ether extract of the stem bark of Moringa oleifera. Chemical investigation of the petroleum ether extract of stem bark of Moringa oleifera led to the isolation of ursolic acid and taraxerone. The same extract when administered p.o. to rats before 1 hr of subplantar injection of carrageenan, had shown significant anti-inflammatory activity.
FLAVONOID COMPOUNDS IN CAPPARACEAE AND FABACEAE
A. Suvarna Latha, N. Yasodamma and C. Aruna
Dept. of Botany, S.V. University, Tirupati 517 502
Three important medicinal plants Capparis zeylanica L., Capparis sepiaria L. (Capparaceae) and Indigofera hirsuta L. (Fabaceae) were selected for the present study based on herbal medicinal importance for the identification of Flavonoid compounds by qualitative paper chromatography procedure (Markham, K. R. (1982)). The above selected plants are having high medicinal values to treat various ailments for human welfare, which lead to the analysis of Flavonoid compounds to correlate the bioactivity of the compounds with the recorded folklore medicinal properties. Flavonoid compounds are phenolic substances which play an important role in plant as antioxidant, antimicrobial, photoreceptors, visual attractors, anti allergic, anti viral and anti-inflammatory agents. These compounds present in the selected species at a large quantities enhance the medicinal properties associated. In Capparis zeylanica L. 7 Flavonoid compounds Rutin, Myricetin, Quercetin, Luteolin, Apigenin, Orientin and Vitexin are identified. The Bio-active nature of Quercetin, Luteolin, Apigenin and Vitexin may be associated with the skin disease curing property of the plant. In Capparis sepiaria L. about 6 Flavonoid compounds Myricetin, Kaempferol, Luteolin, Apigenin, Orientin and Vitexin have been identified. The anti septic, anti pyretic, anti-inflammatory, herpes virus infection, skin disease curing property associated with the plant may be due to the presence of Quercetin, Vitexin, Luteolin and Apigenin. In Indigofera hirsuta L. apart from Kaempferol already identified by Rao etal (1984) about 7 Flavonoid compounds Rutin, Myricetin, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Luteolin, Apigenin, Orientin and Vitexin are identified. The haemorrhagic property associated with the plant may be due to the presence of Rutin.
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL, PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF FICUS RETUSA
S.Ganapaty *, J.Venkata Suresh **
*Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Division, University College Of
Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam
** Dept.Pharmacognosy and PhytoPharmaceuticals, Chebrolu Hanumaiah
Institute Of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guntur
Ficus retusa a urticaceae member is a moderate sized shady tree, growing in tropical and subtropical parts of India .It is widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments .The present study deals with Pharmacognostical, preliminary phytochemical investigation and screening for hypoglycemic activity of leaves of Ficus retusa. The standard pharmacognostical protocol followed as per monograph and data like macroscopy, microscopy, histochemical reactions, leaf constants like stomatal number, stomatal index, palisade ratio and vein islet number were observed. Physico chemical constants like ash value with reference to the air dried drug, total ash, water soluble and acid –insoluble ash and extractive values were also carried out. The air dried leaf powder of Ficus retusa is extracted successively with solvents- petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone, alcohol and chloroform water in the increasing order of polarity. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of above extracts revealed that the presence of sterols, terpenoids, glycosides, and flavonoids. Hypoglycemic activity of leaf preparations (leaf powder and alcoholic extract) at two test doses 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg were carried out on albino rabbits of either sex weighing between 1.5 to 2 kg were divided in to five groups of three each (one standard and four test groups). In the present study hypoglycemic activity of leaf preparations were compared with the hypoglycemic activity of glibenclamide as a standard single dose treatment (40 micrograms/kg). The hypoglycemic effects produced by leaf powder and alcoholic extract are comparable or even more than that of the standard glibenclamide at higher dose.The details of the results will be presented.
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF STEM OF COSCINIUM FENESTRATUM GAERTN. (MENISPERMACEAE).
G. S. Kumar1, K.N. Jayaveera2 Ashok Kumar C.K.3 and Sanjay P Umachigi1.
1Dept. Pharmacognosy, 3Dept. Pharmaceutics,SKC College of Pharmacy,Madanapalle.517325, 2Dept. of Chemistry, J NTU College of Engineering, Ananthpur-515001, Andhra Pradesh, India.
3Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Shri Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Tirupathi, 517132,
The present investigation deals with Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies of Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn) Colebr. (Menispermaceae) is a woody climbing shrub found in Western Ghats in Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala. The root portion of this plant is suggested to have thermogenic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, sudorific and tonic effects, and is used against opthalmopathy, inflammations. Ulcers, wounds, abdominal disorders, jaundice and general disability. The macroscopic and microscopic characters, physical constant values, extractive values, ash values, the behaviour of the powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents, microchemical and fluorescence analysis were conducted. The microscopic measurement of epidermis was12-17 X 4-3 µ, secondary cortex 50-65 X 40-50 µ, sclerenchyma 20-30 X 15-20 µ. The powder macerate microscopic measurement were, vessel 65-75 X5-8 µ, fibres 180-200 4-6 µ and tracheids 15-25 3-5 µ. Physico-chemical parameters performed were loss on drying at 110o C was 9-12%, ash content 12.2%, acid insoluble ash 2.26% and water soluble ash 4.08%. Extractive values in pet. ether (60-80oC) 3.5%, in chloroform 3.4% and in alcohol 4.6%.. Fluorescence studies were carried in ordinary light and UV light with various solvents. Phytochemical studies of successive extracts showed positive reactions for triterpenoids, phenols, and alkaloids. The chemical constituents were further confirmed by thin layer chromatographic studies with different solvent systems and spraying reagents. The present study provides details to characterize some of the Pharmacognostical parameters of Coscinium fenestratum.
PHYTOTHERAPEUTICAL USE OF WOMEN PROBLEMS, SEXUAL PROBLEMS AND VENEREAL DISEASE IN SARVAKOTA MANDAL, SRIKAKULAM DISTRICT, AP.
Sunita, K *, Dr. Sarada Mani, N. and Vijaya, A.
Dept. of Botany, A.U., Visakhapatnam-530003.
*Lecturer in Botany, Govt. Degree College (Men), Srikakulm.
Ethnobotany related to the traditional relationship and the interactions between aborigines and their surrounding plant wealth. Sarvakota Mandal is situated at Northern part of Srikakulam district. This Mandal is included in the Pathapatnam forest range. It consists of sandy soil with dry deciduous Sal vegetation. Author has covered 16 tribal pockets in Sarvakota by intensive field trips over a period of two years. The major tribal communities in Sarvakota Mandal are Kapu Savara and Konda Dora followed by Arakulu, Avatikonda, Telakulolu, Alamolu and Gokulu. The study is purely restricted to the Sarvakota Mandal, Collection of plants are from a wide range of habitat that is the hill slopes, hill tops, plain forest with aquatic and semi aquatic areas besides cultivated fields, waste lands, grassy meadows and roadsides. In the present study the field trips of 5-10 days were made to the 16 tribal pockets of Sarvokota Mandal, during different seasons. The interviews are taken periodically with the selected herbalists in different villages of Sarvakota Mandal. In the present study 116 species of plants are included in 102 genera and 51 families. Among these species more than 30 plant species are used to cure diseases relating to women problems, sexual problems and venereal diseases. The women problem involves abortificent, contraceptives, dysmenorrhoea, emmenegogue, labour pain, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, menstrual disorder and post patrum problems etc. The sexual problems involved are infertility, impotency and spermatorrhoea. The venereal diseases include gonorrhoea and syphilis etc. Most of the drug preparations are made either single or in combination of plant products and occasionally with animal products and minerals.
PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF FICUS HISPIDA L. LEAF
**Ashok Kumar C.K S. Mohanalakshmi, U. Karuna Priyadarsini and Subhash C. Mandal*
Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Tirupati–517 102,,
*Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032.
The Methanol extract of Ficus hispida L. leaf (MEFH) was analyzedfor its psychopharmacological activity which include general behaviour like Spontaneous activity, awareness and alertness, Sound response, touch response and Pain response, the drug (MEFH, 200mg/kg) showed slight to moderate depression in tests concerned with awareness and alertness, the effect was compared with the chlorpromazine and found to very less. The drug (MEFH, 200mg/kg) was also tested for its effect on exploratory behaviour like Head dip test and the Y maze test and showed significant decrease in the head dip response and Y maze test, it also potentiated phenobarbitone induced sleeping time in mice. The drug also produced significant motor- dis-coordination in animals. Significant loss of co ordination and tone of muscle were also found which was evident from 30º inclined screen test. The drug also produced significant failure in traction test.
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO SPERMICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ALBIZZIA LEBBECK ROOTS
Heeshma C.Shah, Medha C. Patel, Pratima. A.Tatke and K.K. Singh
C. U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T. Women's University, Mumbai 400049.
The world population continues to grow at an alarming rate, with a projected 50% increase in current world population to approximately 9 billion by 2050. Many methods for fertility control are available but there is still a quest for safe and alternative means. In recent years, development of vaginal contraceptives incorporating potent spermicidal agents from plant origin is being explored. The percent extractive value for root extract was found to be 06.46%w/w. The qualitative evaluation of the extract indicated the presence of carbohydrates, gums, phenolic compounds, saponins, alkaloids and flavonoids. HPTLC studies were carried out using n-Butanol: Glacial acetic acid: Water (5:0.5:1) as the mobile phase. The minimum effective concentration at which the sperms showed immobilization was 9mg/ml. All the sperms were non-viable at the end of 20 secs. Albizzia lebbeck roots extract exhibited good spermicidal activity and has good potential to be explored further as a vaginal contraceptive, which will be a safe alternative to the currently available synthetic hormone, based contraceptives.
ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIMICROBIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF Sphaeranthus amaranthoides
Prabakaran, M., Srigopalram, S., Thennarasu, V. and Panneerselvam, A
Sri Gowri Biotech Research Academy, Nagai Road, Thanjavur District,
Secondary metabolites from medicinal plants are associated with toxic hormonal, antineoplastic effects. The present study is focused on the antioxidant antimicrobial and phytochemicals in selected medicinal plants belonging to the members of the family Asteraceae. These medicinal plants were collected from medicinal plant collection unit (MPCU) Sri Gowri Biotech Research Academy at Thanjavur Dt, was subjected to antimicrobial activity. The extraction was taken from Sphaevantus amaranthoides using the solvents acetone, ethanol and aqueous. Antioxidant property and chemical constituents were analysed by Thin layer chromatographic method and the results were discussed.
EFFECT OF HOLOPTELEA INTIGRIFOLIA BARK EXTRACT ON RADICAL SCAVENING AND 5'-LIPOXYGEASE ACTIVITIES
M. Rama Rao*, I. Bhaskar Reddy, A.D. Naveen Kumar, A. Ramesh,
T. Kartika, T.Ramana2
Dept. of Biochemistry, College of Science, Gitam University, Visakhapatnam–45.
Holoptelea intigrifolia is traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory disease, hemorrhoids. The role of free radicals has been proved in several diseases of inflammatory origin. To understand the pharmacological actions in inflammatory diseases, different types of radical scavenging and 51-lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of methanol extract of bark of H. intigrifolia have been investigated. Methanol extract exhibited significant radical scavenging activities with IC50 values of 105, 115, 265 and 105 g/ml against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, super oxide, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals respectively. It also showed considerable inhibitory activity against 51-lipoxygenase with IC50 of 55.05 g/ml. These results can contribute to understand the mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of the bark extract.
HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF GYMNOPETALUM COCHINCHINENSIS IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN- INDUCED DIABETIC MICE
*Department of Biochemistry, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793 022, India.
Extract of Gymnopetalum cochinchinensis fruit is traditionally used by local practitioners of Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya for various types of ailments including diabetes. The crude aqueous extract of the fruits was tested for its hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic study in both normal and alloxan- induced diabetic mice. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity was observed to be dose-and time-dependent. The extracts reduced blood glucose level 2 h following administration in both normal and alloxan- induced diabetic mice. In alloxan- induced diabetic mice, blood glucose was markedly reduced to 56% from that of control at 4 h, while in normal mice blood level was 59% from that of control after 4 h following administration of the extract. Maximum reduction was observed at 6 h in alloxan- induced diabetic mice. A prolonged anti-hyperglycemic action was observed even at 24 h in normal mice. Possible mechanisms are discussed.
STUDY OF POLYPHENOLS AND ASCORBIC ACID FROM MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT JUNIPERUS SPECIES
Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala 147 002, India
Polyphenol and ascorbic acid are part of antioxidant apparatus which play a role in scavenging the plant from stress of any kind may be biotic as in case of pathogen attack or abiotic inform of temperature, salt stress. Medicinal properties of any plant species depend on the quantity and quality both of the antioxidant apparatus. Juniperus plants are known to be popular as anticancerous and antibacterial plants from ancient time and mentioned in various Ayurvedic texts. Fresh or dried leaves of these are used in hawan by Himachal peoples. These antioxidant properties are more or less depends on the growth and development phase of the plant and harvesting of medicinally used part is being done by the specialists according to that. In present study activity of enzymatic antioxidant polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and non-enzymatic antioxidant ascorbic acid were reported which was enhanced in vegetative aerial parts of Juniperus chinensis, J. prostrata and J. variegata at the time of new flush of growth in the form of bud and needles and at the time of bud extension and shoot elongation during spring and autumn. These plants are grown in the Botanic Gardens of Punjabi University, Patiala and were 27 years old at the time of study. Highest peak of these antioxidants were found during July- August which was the bud bursting season in these plants in the present habitat. The initial non-enzymatic antioxidant content of AA was highest at the commencement of bud bursting season in the month of July. PPO activity was higher during summer (May-Jun) and also found at higher levels during winter (Dec-Jan). The results suggested that these components of antioxidant apparatus (PPO and AA) are involved in growth and development process and also act as scavengers in these plants.
A NOVEL ANTIFUNGAL ALKALOID JULIFLORAVIZOLE ISOLATED FROM LEAVES OF PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (SW.) DC.
M. P. Raghavendra1, 2 and K. A. Raveesha11
Herbal drug technology laboratory, Department of Studies in Botany, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore, 570 006, Karnataka, India.2 Lecturer in Microbiology, P.G. Department of Microbiology, Maharani's Science College for Women, Mysore- 570 005, Karnataka, India.
A novel antifungal alkaloid was isolated from the methanol extract of leaves of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. by antifungal activity-guided assay. Mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H 13C HSQC, COSY and TOCSY analysis suggested that the inhibitory compound is an alkaloid and has a structure of 1H-Imidazole-4-carboxylic acid 2-ethyl-hexyl ester (Julifloravizole). In vitro evaluation for antifungal activity by poisoned food technique against important phytopathogenic fungi tested such as eight species of Fusarium, three species of Drechslera and three isolates of Alternaria alternata revealed highly significant mycelial growth inhibition of the test fungi. Comparative evaluation of the MIC of the Julifloravizole with that of recommended dosage of synthetic fungicides viz., Blitox, Captan, Dithane M-45 and Thiram indicated that the Julifloravizole is effective even at lower concentrations. Significant increase in germination percentage with significant decrease in seed mycoflora was observed in vivo in the Julifloravizole treated sorghum seeds compared to control.
HPTLC MONITORING BIOTRANSFORMATION OF EPOXY AZADIRADIONE (EADD) BY USING SELECTED FUNGI
C. Madusudhana Chetty*, G. Divyasree1, P. Ellaiah** and S. Narasimhan***
* Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, Rajampet.
** Jeypore College of Pharmacy, Jeypore.
***Asthagiri Herbal Research Foundations, Chennai.
The plant based compounds continue to play an important role in Health care system and these are promising candidates for the development of Novel biologically active molecules through microbial catalytic processes. In order to detect the bioactive molecule through biotransformation, the present investigation was carried out with Neem compound Epoxy Azadiradione with seven selected fungi.A two-stage Fermentation process was carried out for microbial transformation studies by using fresh fungal spores/ Mycelium in czapac-dox medium (PH 7), at 120rpm at 28° C for 3 days. Then added the compound EADD (40 mg in 2ml of Acetone/ 100 ml of medium) and incubated for 7 more days on Reciprocating Shaker at 120 rpm. The mycelium was separated and filtrate is saturated with Sodium chloride and extracted thrice with equal volume of Ethyl acetate. The residual moisture is removed from organic layer by using Sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum.The Biotransformation of EADD residue mixture of each fungai was allowed for Densitometric Assay by using HPTLC. The percentage conversion and No of products formed based on RF values were analyzed and discussed.
STRUCTURAL PERSPECTIVES OF HERBAL DRUGSITS RELEVANCE IN PHARMACOGNOSY
Plant Anatomy Research Centre, Chennai
Increasing reliances in herbal drugs at the global level has necessitated to discover more and more new medicinal plants and to tap the bioactive molecules from them. Of course, we have enormous wealth of herbals, most of them being sustainable to meet the needs of the human health care. All those who deal with different aspects of herbals must bear in mind that they must have adequate fundamental knowledge of the botanical dimension of the herbals. This even becomes more valid when the herbalists have to face ambiguity in the identity and genuineness ofthe herbal drugs, due to many regional names for the same botanical source or many botanical names for a single local name. Further more, several plants of entirely different botanical sources possess simulating external appearance. The similarities between these unrelated plants will be so astonishing that we cannot easily differentiate one from the other. When the plants are available in fragmentary forms in the crude drug markets, such exomorphic similarities of unrelated drugs of different botanical sources go in favour of those who are indulged inadulteration or substitution of drugs. When two or more drugs of different plant species come for botanical diagnosis, one has to resort to microscopic studies and to get the diagnostic anatomical characters specific for the species at hand. A few illustrations will be presented to show how microscopic parameters offer helping hand to solve the diagnostic problems of identical phytodrugs of different botanical species and how to detect a genuine drug from its adulterants or identicals.
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES OF STEMONA TUBEROSA LOUR.
C.Ramesh, G.Sudarsanam* and A. Sudhakar
Department of Botany, S.V.Arts college, Tirupati
*Department of Botany, S.V.University, Tirupati
Stemona tuberosa lour., generally called Anki and the leaves are used to cure night blindness. The tubers are one of the ingredients to improve potency in man. All parts of the plant body have many medicinal virtues in indigenous medicine. A fair amount of chemical work has not been done. Further investigation on different parts of the plant including seed is required to know the importance medicinally and historically. An attempt has been made to study the pharmacognostic details and diagnostic features of the drug are described.
PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN INORGANIC CONTENTS OF
SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SOLANACEAE
Rathor O.S. and K.M. Ranjalkar
Department of Botany, N.E.S. Science College, Nanded-431 605. (M.S)
The global boom about traditional medicinal plants have created new interests in Indian plants. The present investigation is about six less known medicinal plants of Solanaceae. These plants are investigated from the point view of occurrence of some inorganic metals. These plants have one or other ethno-botanical background. The inorganic investigation is done by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The quantitative estimation of Na, K, Ca, Fe, Pb and Hg was done in following plants of Solanaceae. Solanum torvum Swartz., Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq., Solanum sisymbrifolium Lamk., Solanum anguivi Lamk., Datura ferox L. and Physalis pubescensL. The results are interesting from point of view of toxicity in traditional drugs.
EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ROOTS OF ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R.BR ON BLOOD SUGARS AND PLASMA GLYCOPROTEIN COMPONENTS IN DIABETIC ALBINO RATS
Kamakshamma. J , *Jayasankar. A and Sudarsanam. G
Department of Botany S.V.University, Tirupati
*Department of zoology S.V. University, Tirupati
Diabetic mellitus (DM) metabolic disorder resulting from the defect of secretion, action or both. In addition alteration are observed in metabolism of carbohydrate, lipid and protein under this DM. In DM body fails to produce insulin as a result there will be accumulatin of glucose in blood rather than being used. As the disease progress tissue or vascular damage like ratenopathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular complications occur. The present study aimed to clarify antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens R.Br on blood glucose and plasma glycoprotein components in alloxan induced diabetic rats. After the treatment a significant reduction was observed in fasting blood glucose levels in the treated diabetic rats, Ichnocarpus frutescens treatment showed considerable lowering of plasma glycoproteins in the long term treated diabetic group. There was significant improvement of blood sugars and plasma glycoprotein in treated diabetic rats to normal level after the treatment with Ichnocarpus frutescens these results suggested that the Ichnocarpus frutescens root powder possesses antidiabetic effect in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
A NOVEL METHOD FOR ISOLATION OF ALOIN FROM LEAVES OF ALOE BARBADENSIS. LINN.
Sampath Kumar 1, Appa Rao1, S .Kumar 2, Mohan Kumar. R2,
Rahul Nair 3, Ashok Kumar C.K3.
1. Department of Biochemistry Sri Venkateshwara University, Tirupati
2. Asthagiri Herbal Research Foundations, Tambaram, Chennai
3. Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, A.Rangampet, Tirupati
Aloe barbadensis.L Syn. Aloe vera. (Liliaceae) is used in treatment of variety of diseases in traditional Indian system of medicine in India. It is reported to contain mono and polysaccharides, tannins, sterols, organic acids, enzymes, saponins, vitamins and minerals .The main active constituent of Aloe vera plant extract is aloin, an anthraquinone heteroside. The present study was undertaken with an aim to isolate aloin from aqueous extract of fresh leaves of the plant. The active compound was isolated using a mixture of solvents. Quantification of the aloin in the extracts was carried by HPLC and TLC studies. The studies show that the process can isolate aloin with very high purity.
EVALUATION OF COLEUS FORSKOHLII GENOTYPES FOR
C. Kavitha, E. Vadivel and K. Rajamani
Horticultural College and Research Institute, TNAU Coimbatore
Coleus forskohlii Briq., belonging to the mint family Lamiaceae, is an important ancient root drug credited with various medicinal properties. The tuberous roots are used as drug for heart diseases, abdominal colic, respiratory disorder, insomnia and convulsions and is also used for pickle making. The root extract has been found to possess antiaging and antioxidant properties. The foliage is employed in treating intestinal disorders and used as condiment. The essential oil in tubers has potential uses in food flavouring industry and is used as an antimicrobial agent. The tuberous root extracts of C. forskohlii were found to contain forskolin, an active principle exclusive to this species. The therapeutic properties of forskolin contributed to the emergence of C. forskohlii as a taxon of importance in modern medicine. Thirty seven C. forskohlii genotypes collected from various places of the important Coleus growing states viz., Tamil Nadu and Karnataka were evaluated at Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. The genotypes exhibited remarkable variations for all the bio chemical characters studied. The total sugar, starch and crude protein content in the fresh tubers varied from 5.90 g to 10.03g, 6.97 to 20.94 g and 6.14 to 9.05 g per 100g respectively. The forskohlin and essential oil content were estimated using dried tuber powder. The tuberous genotypes exhibited significant difference among themselves for forskolin and essential oil content and their value ranged from 1.14 to 1.40 % and 0.08 to 0.20 % respectively.
STUDIES ON FLOWERING BEHAVIOR, ANTIFEEDENT, ANTIFUNGAL AND NEMATICIDAL PROPERTIES OF ALOE VERA
V.Umamahesh, B.Gopal Singh, D.V.V. Reddy and S.J.Rahaman
College of Agriculture, ANGRAU, Rajendranagar.
Field and laboratory experiments were conducted in the Department of Plant Physiology College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar and at Herbal Garden, ANGRAU to know the influence of flowering and deflowering on certain quality aspects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) during khairf and rabi, 2003. The laboratory experiments were conducted in completely randomized design replicated five times to know the antifeedent, antifungal, nematicidal properties of aloe crude extract. A significant variation in nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn) and barbaloin content of the leaf was observed as a response to flowering and deflowering in Aloe vera. Barbaloin content was more at peak flowering stage (9.2%). The crude extract of aloe exhibited anti-feedent/anti-biosis activity on spodoptera litura where in 10 per cent aloe crude extract resulted in 100 per cent larval mortality. Ten per cent aloe crude extract also exhibited significantly high anti-fungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. over control. Similarly, 10 per cent crude extract of aloe affected the egg hatching and survival rate in Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus coffeae nematodes.
SCREENING OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS FOR ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY
AGAINST ASPERGILLUS SPECIES
S. Satish, M.P. Raghavendra, and K.A. Raveesha
Agricultural Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Studies in Botany and Microbiology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006, India.
Aspergillus species such as A. candidus, A. columnaris, A.flavipes, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, and A. tamari was isolated form seed material by Standard Blotter Method. All these species were subjected to antifungal susceptibility assay to aqueous extract of sixty-two plants from different families. Among sixty-two plants tested, aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica, Achras zapota, Datura stramonium, Emblica officinalis, Eucalyptus globules, Lawsonia inermis, Mimusops elengi, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Polyalthia longifolia, Prosopis juliflora, Punica granatum and Sygigium cumini have recorded significant antifungal activity against one or the other Aspergillus species tested. A. flavus recorded high susceptibility and hence solvent extracts viz., petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol and ethanol extracts of all the twelve plants were tested for their antifungal activity against it. Among the five solvent extracts tested, methanol extract recorded significant antifungal activity compared to ethanol, chloroform, benzene and petroleum ether extracts. The findings of this study clearly depicts the presence of potential antifungal compounds in the twelve plants and upon further characterization, it holds a greater promise in the discovery of new drugs.
IN VITRO STUDIES IN CARALLUMA ADESCENDENSE AGAINST
Dakshayani Malkapur and G. M. Vidyasagar
Department of Botany, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, Karnataka.
Based on the traditional knowledge, Caralluma adscendense was selected for the present studies and extracted the plant materials in different solvents. Ethyl acetate stem and root extracts were tested against some clinical bacterial isolates such as, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella dysentriae, Salmonella typhii and Klebsiella pnemoniae. Stem extract at 120mg/ml concentration showed higher activity against all the isolates as compared to 80mg/ml concentration, however the root extract at 120 mg/ml showed significant activity only against Salmonella typhii and Proteus vulgaris. The results of stem extract at 120mg/ml concentration showed statistically similar activity as Pencillin at 10mg/ml. The activity of other standards like, Ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin and Chloremphenicol was comparatively more than the extracts.
BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ALOE VERA INOCULATED WITH AM FUNGI
V.L.Swapna and K. Ammani,
Departement of Microbiology, Acharya Nagarjuna university, Guntur, AP
Aloe, a popular house plant has a long history as a multipurpose folk remedy. Aloe vera, commonly known as kalabandha, has been used for tropical treatments ofwounds,tumors,burns.It can also be used as a beverage.Aloe products for internal use has been used for constipations ,wounds, ulcers,diabetis,cancer and immune system deficiencies .Am fungi are ubiquitous in nature.They play a key role in supply of phosphorous to plant drought resistance, uptake of minerals ,resistance to pathogens and increasing the nodulation AM fungi act as biofertiliser.As the plant has much medicinal value we have selected it for pot culture studies to observe the effect of AM fungi on the plant.AM fungi inoculated plant showed better growth than control.There was increase in gel content,number of leaves,root height and shoot height compared to control .As there is difference in growth of the plant and also the gel content, we had planned to do research on biochemical side. The gel contains carbohydrate polymers such as glucomanons plus various organic and inorganic components.
LOCAL ANAESTHETIC ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF MUKIA MADERASPATANA
S. Sarojinia, M. Madhavia, S.T. Balamuralib, K. Saraswathib
a SRM College of Pharmacy, Kattankulathur, Kanchipuram (Dist) South India
b Mahathma Gandhi Medical College, Pondicherry, South India.
Mukia maderaspatana belonging to the family cucurbitaceae is a herbaceous plant widely growing in tropics. The leaves are traditionally used in cough, asthma, bronchitis, expectorant and carminative. However detailed information regarding the local anaesthetic activity of mukia maderaspatana is not scientifically documented. Hence it thought worthwhile to investigate the local anesthetic effect. Preliminary photochemical investigation of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the leaves of mukia maderaspatana showed the presence of glycosides, triterpenoid saponins, spinosterol and dihydrospinasterol. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of dried leaves of mukia maderaspatana prepared extracts was diluted with distilled water to get different concentrations of 10µg/ml, 100µg/ml and 1000µg/ml. In an in vivo study, local anaesthetic activity of leaves of mukia maderaspatana was evaluated in healthy frogs (45 50gms) of either sex were housed under standard conditions and diet. The local anaesthetic effect was studied with six frogs of each group and their lumbar plexus was exposed using nerve block anaesthesia method. Aqueous and alcoholic extract in different concentrations 10µg/ml, 100µg/ml and 1000 µg/ml were used for the study. Lignocaine (0.5%) was employed as a standard local anaesthetic agent. Similar procedure was adopted for all the group of frogs. The preliminary pharmacological screening of the crude, alcoholic and aqueous extracts revealed that these extracts have local anaesthetic activity. Ethanol extract of 10µg/ml and 100µg/ml concentration exhibited maximum local anesthetic activity and effect last longer among the test groups. Data are expressed as the mean µSD .The significance of the results was calculated using one way analysis of variance under Tukey Kramer multiple comparison test and unpaired 't' test Data are significant, pµ0.05 compare with control. In the present study mukia maderaspatana leaves extract showed satisfactory local anesthetic activity. This shows that people in rural areas, where they are more aware of this plants can very well use it for external application to get analgesic relief.
ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF SOME SELECTED TRIBAL MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM SRIHARIKOTA ISLAND
R. Bharath Kumar * and B. Suryanarayana**
Dept.of Biotechnology, Vignan's Engg. College, Vadlamudi, Guntur-522213.
**Assoc. Professor (Retd.), # 8-307, Karnakamma Street, Venkatagiri Town-524132.
Sriharikota –acquired importance botanically because of rich vegetational diversity and due to installation of Rocket Launching Station by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). An aboriginal tribe called 'Yanadi'dwells in a few tribal pockets in Sriharikota Island. However a few aged tribal men are still able to furnish information regarding their traditional practices of medicines and recipes. It is an urgent need to conserve their herbal wealth and preserve traditional knowledge for the benefit of modern society. It is with this background and in order to give a primary scientific basis to the tribal medicinal lore of Sriharikota Island a preliminary screening of antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) activity screening was conducted for 81 tribal medicinal samples based on their medicinal importance, endemism/rare occurrence in the island. Out of these 81 samples, 28 samples have shown positive response for antimicrobial tests. Among these 28 samples, 8 species namely Alangium salvifolium, Aristolochia indica, Ctrullus colocynthis, Datura stramonium, Ficus religiosa, Holoptelia integrifolia, Lawsonia innermis and Ventilago madaraspatana have shown cognizable immunity zone of inhibition (i.e. above 20 mm). All the data is recorded in this paper. The results are mostly in conformity of the medicinal uses and they are discussed in detail in this article.
\PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF STEM
BARK OF MORINGA OLEIFERA
Santanu Saba Chandrashekar.K.S.1, Arun.B.Joshi Ajay Thakur
D. Satyanarayana2 and E.V.S.Subrahmanyam2
1. Department of Pharmacognosy, NGSM Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Paneer, Deralakatte, Mangalore, Karnataka, Pin- 574160. 2. Department of Phannaceutical Chemistry, NGSM Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Paneer, Deralakatte, Mangalore, Kamataka, Pin- 574160.
Moringa oleifera Lam known in the vernacular as "Shajna" belongs to the family Moringaceae, distributed in the sub-Himalayan ranges of India, Sri-Lanka, Mexico, Arabia, and South Western Africa.
From the literature survey, it was revealed that many phytoconstituents like triterpenoids, alkaloids, sterols, resins, amino acids and saponins were isolated and characterized from the whole plant. Various pharmacological activities like anticancer, antifertility, antiulcer, antibacterial activities were studied. It was learnt that no substantial work on the stem bark of Moringa oleifera was carried both in the chemical investigation and pharmacological activities. Hence an effort was made to investigate the chemical constituents and to screen for anti-inflammatory activity of the petroleum ether extract of the stem bark of Moringa oleifera. Chemical investigation of the petroleum ether extract of stem bark of Moringa oleifera led to the isolation of ursolic acid and taraxerone. The same extract when administered p.o. to rats before 1 hr of subplantar injection of carrageenan, had shown significant anti-inflammatory activity.
ANTI-MICROBIAL STUDIES IN PETROLEUM ETHER AND ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF GALLS OF PISTACIA INTEGERRIMA
Ravi Shankara.B.E, Bhavana S Kashyap, Eishitha Agarwal, Niharinlc.R, Minai M Gokhale
Shri Bhagwan Mahaveer Jain College, School Of Graduate Studies. Bangalore
Insect modifies specific portion of a plant to form insect galls, which provides nutrition and protection to invading cecidogen. These are extensively used as medicinal ingredient in Europe and Indian subcontinent. They have been used as medicinal ingredient in both Ayurveda and siddha system of medicine. The study was carried out to investigate and compare anti-microbial effects of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of P. integerrima insect gall against pathogen like Bacilus cereus, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, Escheria coli, Streptococus aureus, candida albicans, Cadida parasilopsis, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. B. cereus and S. aureus were less susceptible to petroleum ether and more susceptible to ethanol extract, whereas Pseudomonas aerogenosa, Escheria coli were susceptible only to ethanol extract. All the tested fungi i.e,. C.albicans, C.parasilopsis, A. niger and A.flavus were resistant to both petroleum ether and ethanol extract.
IMPORTANCE OF QUALITY CONTROL AND STANDARDIZATION IN DEVELOPMENT OF HERBAL DRUGS/PRODUCTS FOR GLOBAL POSITIONING
Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, N B R I, Lucknow, India.
In the last few decades there has been worldwide revival on the use of herbal drugs/phytochemical for the diverse purpose including medicinal, nutritional and as cosmetic. The revival of interest in natural drugs and the herbal products started in the last decade mainly because of the widespread belief that 'green' medicine is healthier than synthetic products. This has led to the rapid spurt of demand for health products like herbal tea, ginseng and such products of traditional medicine during the 1980s.The global herbal medicine is about US$ 90 billion which is growing at the rate of 10-15% annually and is expected to cross 5 trillion US$ by 2030. The Indian share of the herbal World market is less than 2%, India set the target to export of herbal drugs/products worth of Rs. 10,000 corers by 2010 (Agarwal, 2005). These targets can be achieved by providing scientifically validated, safe and standardized herbal products in domestic and international markets. Standardization, optimization and full control of growing conditions should guarantee a cost-effective and quality-controlled production of many plant-derived compounds. This kind of standardization and quality control of the plant based drugs will improve safety of these drugs and promote its usage. Over 80 per cent of the raw material required for traditional medicines/ herbal medicines used to be collected from wild resources. With the increase in demand of medicinal plants for the commercial herbal medicine sector led to the indiscriminate and unscientific collection without any consideration for the quality of the material collected. Therefore, it is extremely important to establish the reference samples and to determine the quality parameters of the medicinal plants by undertaking extensive and intensive study of the traditional treatise of the classical medicines or traditional practices, combined with the modern scientific knowledge and methods and using the latest analytical and computational tools like HPLC, GC, HPTLC, etc. Some essential steps to ensure quality include compliance with GMP, preparation of standard formulations, preparation of SOP's, strict adherence to standard protocols etc.
HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS GROWN IN PERIURBAN POLLUTED ENVIRONMENT QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE OF HERBAL PRODUCTS
Dept. of Plant Sciences, University of Hyderabad,Hyderabad 500 046, India,
Interactions of plants with metals and metalloids have several economic and environmental implications and had gained global significance. Asian medical systems (Indian = Ayurveda, Siddha, Folk, Unani, Tibetan, Homeopathy and Modern medicinal practices uses a variety of plants), Tibetan and Chinese medical systems use a wide range of plant products such as flowers, leaves, roots, rhizomes, whole plant, wood, bark, stem, seeds, fruits etc in preparation of herbal formulations. Several of the plants having healing functions have the in herent function of metal accumulation. Thus, the products prepared are often contaminated with toxic levels of heavy metals of natural or anthropogenic. Collection of healing plants from trace element contaminated and polluted environment exposed to trace elements and, use of ground water irrigation for cultivation of medicinal plants are the major sources of toxic trace elements (Chiu et al 2006). Often the accumulated trace elements pose health risks (Ernst 2002) or may serve as remedy, for which detailed investigations are warranted. The notable medicinal and aromatic plants that have inherent ability of accumulating toxic trace elements are a) Pelargonium, b) Vetiveria zizanioides,c) Hemidesmus indicus d) Hydrocotyle umbellate, e) Alternanthera philoxeroides and f) A. Pungense. There is an increased conciousness regionally and globally in production and use of plants with healing properties. Analytical instrumentation is required for species-selective analysis for trace elements. Therefore, this presentation would focus prominent lacunae in quality control and quality assurance related to trace elements in human diet and medicinal plant products which makes legislation set limits regarding toxic metal concentrations.
COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS OF LALITPUR DISTRICT, UTTAR PRADESH
Regional Research Institute (Ay), Jhansi-284003
The district of Lalitpur is located in south-western part of the Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh covering an area of about 5000 sq lun. This part of the Bundelkhand is very rich in biodiversity and medicinal plants due to its location in Vindhyan plateau. The number of plants of medicinal value occurring wild or cultivated in this region is around two hundred. Of these about 60 provided much useful raw material for drug and pharmaceutical Industry. About 50 crude drugs are regularly collected from this region and sold in the local and national markets. Major among these are Bilva, Amla, Bahera, Gunnar, Kalmegh, Kutaj, lndrajava, Punarnava, Shankhpushpi, Arjun chhal,Gokshru, Giloy, Marorphali, Chiraunji, Sariva, Kaunch beej, Sallai, Dhaw, Ashwagandha, Safed musali, Satavari, Bhuiamla, Amaltas, Agnimanth, Varun,Gambhari, etc. The paper provides imformation on availability, status, distribution and uses of these commercially important medicinal plants of this region.
SOME BIOTECHNOLOGICAL METHODS FOR ASSESSING QUALITY OF COCOON AND SILK FROM THE SILKWORMS
M. Lokesh Kumar,
C.M.R College of Engineering Technology, Hyderabad - 501401
Cocoon weight, shell weight, shell percentage, filament length and deniere like certain parameters are essentia for assessing the quality of silk cocoon weight can be measured by randomly taking 20 cocoons and can be weighed in an electric balance and can be expressed in grams / cocoon. Shell weight indicates the total quality of silk in the selected cocoons. The selected cocoons can be cut open with the help of a sharp blade and the shell weight can be measured. The mean of the shell can be expressed as grams / shell. Shell percentage in the ratio between shell weight and cocoon weight. It can be calculated by the formula.
Silk filament length indicates the realable filament length of silk filament from a cocoon. It can be measured in a mono cocoon reeling machine called Eupprouvette machine and the filament length can be calculated as: Total filament length (M) = No. of rotations X circumference of the reel. The fineness of cocoon filament can be expressed by size, called as denier and can be calculated by the formula,