HERBOLOGY IN AYURVEDA AND TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE
A.Lalithamba and N.S.R.Krishna Rao
Centre for Conservation of Biodiversity and Medicinal Plants, Kavali, AP.
Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) are indigenous medical schools of India and China respectively, developed over thousands of years. Ayurveda or the "Science of Life" is dealt with in Adharvanaveda and hence Ayurveda is as old as the Vedas. Ayurveda had a major impact on the development of TCM, Tibetan Medicine and Unani. WHO defines Traditional Medicine as "the health practices approaches, Knowledge, diagnosis and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral-based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises applied singularly or in combination to treat diagnose and prevent illness or maintain well-being". There are several parameters common to both Ayurveda and TCM, the theories, practices, diagnosis and treatments such as the use of herbs, animal products and minerals. Food therapy, herbology, massage-therapy, breathing exercises are a common denominator in both the Oriental medical schools. The central concept of Ayurvedic medicine is the theory that health exists where there is a balance among the fundamental bodily humors or Doshas called Vata, Pitta and Kapha. TCM theory is based on a number of philosophical Frame-works including the theory of Yin-Yang, the five elements, the human body, Meridian system, Zang Fu organ theory and others. Diagnosis and treatment are conducted with reference to these concepts. There is a popular saying in China that "Chinese Medicine treats the humans while Western medicine treats the disease". WHO estimates that 80% of the world population currently use herbal treatment for some aspect of primary healthcare. Herbal medicine is a major component of all the traditional medical schools and a common element in Ayurveda, TCM, Kampo, Homoeopathy, Naturopathy and Native American Medicine. The paper briefly reviews the use of herbs in Ayurveda and TCM practices.
A REVIEW ON RECENT RESEARCHES ON AYURVEDA PLANTS
EFFECTIVE IN CANCER
M. Paramkusha Rao
SV Ayurvedic College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh
Cancer is an unsolved major concern of human health. Either chemotherapy or radiation has not provided a complete solution to the problem. Sometimes the therapies are proven more suffering than the disease proper. Hence, in recent years the focus is shifted over medicinal plants and their effect on cancer. In this process several Ayurveda plants have shown some promising results with their effectiveness on cancer. Certain plants like Curcuma longa, Withania somnifera have been researched very extensively internationally. A system review of these studies will sure to provide deeper insight from Ayurveda view point. An effort is made on pooling all the researches on Ayurveda herbs and present in a systematized fashion in the main paper. Certain relevant Ayurveda classical references are explored to enhance the understanding and pave way for future researches.
ROLE OF GMP VIS-A-VIS MEDICINAL PLANTS - FORMULATIONS IN
AYURVEDA AND UNANI SYSTEMS
*P.V.Raj and D.Narapa Reddy
*Dept.of AYUSH, Govt. of A.P, Hyderabad. Srinivasa Ayurveda Pharmacy, TTD,
Ayurveda and Unani Systems are the oldest traditional systems of Medicine in our country. About 70-80% formulations of various categories are manufactured by using herbal origin. 20-30~ ingredients of various formulations are derived from minerals, metals and animal sources. There are certain norms recommended for the collection, identification and purification before the manufacture of final drug. All these are available in the classical literature of Ayurveda and Unani medicine. Recently(2-3 decades) Government of India has also worked on Pharmacopoeal standards and broughtout Indian Formulary, G}W (Good Manufacturing Practices) and good laboratory testing methods to ensure quality control as "lell as quality assurance" keeping in view the demand and supply of these drug formulations wi thin the country and outside as "Jell.Taking into the above factors in consideration, the details will be presented showing the imPortance of Medicinal Plants. To mention a few are: identification, collection, storage, Manufacturing process, Finished Drug packing~Storage, Drug analysis for quality control and regulatory affairs. The above points are discussed in detail.
STUDIES ON MICROPROPAGATION OF ASCLEPIAS CURASSA VICA. (L.) - AN IMPORTANT MULTIPURPOSE MEDICINAL PLANT
S. Hemadri Reddy and C.V. Naidu.
Dept. of Biotechnology, S.V.University, Tirupathi – 517 502, A.P., India.
Asclepias curassavica is an erect, evergreen subshrub belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. It is native to south tropical America. This plant is the richest source of cytotoxic and cardiac glycosides and contains highly valuable potential products for curing many diseases namely ring worm, warts, fever, lung problems, etc., An effective protocol for in vitro regeneration was developed by using axillary bud explants of Asclepias curassavica, an important anticancer and multipurpose medicinal plant. The Murashige and (MS) Skoog medium amended with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins were used for shoot regeneration and regenerated shoots were rooted on half strength MS medium supplemented with IBA and 1M at different concentrations. About 90% of the rooted plantlets were survived when transferred to nursery shade and subsequently to the field conditions.
NOVEL MOLECULAR APPROACH FOR OPTIMIZATION OF DNA ISOLATION AND PCR PROTOCOL FOR RAPD ANALYSIS AND GENETIC DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. (EUPHORBIACEAE)
K.Subramanyam1, D.Muralidhara Rao2, N.Devanna3, A.Aravinda4 and V.Pandurangadu5
1Department of Biochemistry, Otri, Jntu, Anantapur, Department of Biotechnology, SKU, Anantapur, Department of Chemistry, JNTUCEA, Anantapur.
The present research work deals with genetic analysis of Jatropha curcas on high yields of pure DNA samples and optimization of DNA isolation and PCR conditions for RAPD analysis of Jatropha curcas containing high levels of latex, high levels of pigments, polyphenols and secondary metabolites. The method involves modified CTAB extraction employing PVP while grinding, successive long term Chloroform: Isoamylalcohol extractions, an overnight RNase treatment. The yield of DNA ranged from 28-30 μg/μl per 300 mg of leaf tissue and the purity (ratio) was between 1.68-1.72 indicating minimal level of contaminating metabolites. Novel methodology is useful in isolation of DNA for RAPD analysis, thus the results indicate that optimized protocol for DNA isolation and PCR was amenable to Jatropha curcas, which is highly suitable for further work on genetic diversity assessment.
CALLUS INDUCTION FROM LEAF EXPLANTS OF ABUTILON INDICUM (LINN.)- A VALUABLE MEDICINAL PLANT
Mathiyazhagan,K. Mercilin Merina.T, Vijai. D and Jawakar. SI
Dept.of Biotechnology, Bharath College of Science and Management, Thanjavur -5, T.N.
Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweat is known as country mallow which belongs to the family Malvaceae. It is used as a drug in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine as a febrifuge, anthelmintic, antiinflammatory, and for bleeding piles. The leaf explants were collected, surface sterilized and inoculated with MS Medium fortified with different concentrations and combinations of Auxins and cytokinins. The proliferated calli were subcultured and taken for further phytochemical analysis.
EFFECT OF CARBON SOURCES ON MICROPROPAGATION OF STEVIA REBAUDIANA (BERT.) FROM AXILLARY BUD EXPLANTS -AN IMPORTANT NATURAL BIOSWEETNER PLANT
D. Mohan Kumar, D. Preethi and C.V. Naidu.
Dept. of Biotechnology, S.V.University, Tirupathi - 517502, A.P., India.
Stevia rebaudiana is a world's natural sweetner with zero calories, zero carbohydrates and zero glycemic index. More recently Stevia gained popularity as a sweetener for coffees and teas. Stevia has many favorable and exciting health benefits and it is completely non-toxic. It belongs to the family of Asteraceae. Effect of different carbon sources such as glucose, fructose, maltose and sucrose in combination with BAP (2mg/lit) on direct shoot regeneration from axillary bud explants of stevia were evaluated. The Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of different carbohydrates were used to evaluate their ability towards regeneration. The regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium amended with IBA, 1M and NM. The rooted plantlets were transferred to nursery shade and to the field conditions.
CALLUS INDUCTION FROM SHOOT TIP, STEM AND LEAF EXPLANTS OF A COMMON MEDICINAL HERB
*Mohanavalli.R and Viiai.D
P.G and Research Dept. of Biotechnology,
Bharath College of science and management Thanjavur-5
E-mail: viiaidclement (ajyahoo.co.in
Trigonella foenum-graecum L., is an erect and annual herb native to Southern Europe and Asia. It belongs to the family Fabaceae.It has traditionally been considered as a carminative, demulcent, laxative and stomachic. It is also used to heat, bronchitis, diabetes and cancer. Shootip, stem and leaf explants were collected from invitro germinating seedlings. The excised explants were inoculated with Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with different concentrations and combinations of Auxins and Cytokinins. The proliferated calli can be used for further phytochemical analysis, after many successive subcultures.
HIGH FREQUENCY PLANT REGENERATION FROM AXILLARY BUD EXPLANTS OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA OUNAL. - AN IMPORTANT ANTITUMOR
K. Muralidhar Varma, M. Swathi, D. Preethi and C.V. Naidu
Dept. of Biotechnology, S.V.University, Tirupathi – 517 502, A.P., India.
Withania somnifera Dunal. (Ashwagandha) belongs to the family of Solanaceae growing to a height of 30 -150 em. It is one of the important medicinal cash crop in many states of India. It has antibiotic, antiviral, antiamoebic, antiarthritic and anti-inflammatory properties. Standard protocol was developed by using axillary bud explants of Withania somnifera for maximum multiple shoots production with cytokinins such as BAP and KN and auxins namely NM and 1M. The Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins were used for high frequency shoot regeneration. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium supplemented with IBA, 1M and NM. Rooted plantlets were transferred to nursery shades and subsequently to the fields.
IN VITRO PLANT REGENERATION OF STEVIA REBAUDIANA (BERT.) - AN IMPORTANT NUTRACEUTICAL PLANT
Dept. of Biotechnology, S.V.University, Tirupati–517 502, A.P., India.
Stevia rebaudiana (also called as sweet leaf or sugar leaf) belongs to the family of Asteraceae growing to a height of 60–70cm. Stevia leaf contains secondary metabolites such as stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C and dulcoside A. Stevia is non-toxic, non-calorie, non-plaque, non-fermentative, flavour enhancing, non-carcinogenic, non-addictive sweetness for children and an intense sweetener compared to sucrose. Apart from this due to calorie free property it is absolutely safe for diabetics, phenyl ketonuria patients and slimming people. An effective protocol for high frequency in vitro regeneration was developed by using nodal explants of Stevia rebaudiana, an important calorie free biosweetner of high quality. The Murashige and (MS) Skoog medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins were used for high frequency shoot regeneration. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration was achieved and regenerated shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium supplemented with IBA, IAA and NAA. About 95% of the rooted plantlets survived when transferred to nursery shade and subsequently to the field.
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT GROWTH ADDITIVES ON IN VITRO SHOOT REGENERATION FROM NODAL EXPLANT OF STEVIA REBAUDIANA (BERT.) - AN IMPORTANT INSULIN ENHANCER PLANT
K.Radhika, P.Pavithra, D. Preethi and C.V. Naidu
Dept. of Biotechnology, S.V.University, Tirupathi – 517 502, A.P., India.
Stevia rebaudiana is an outstanding herb bearing leaves of very refreshing sweet taste and remarkable health promoting qualities. It belongs to the family of Asteraceae. The effect of growth additives such as ascorbic acid, casein hydrolysate and coconut milk in combination with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins on direct shoot regeneration of nodal explants of Stevia rebaudiana were evaluated. The Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of growth additives were used to evaluate their ability towards shoot regeneration. The regenerated shoots were rooted on half strength MS medium amended with IBA, IAA and NAA. The rooted plantlets were transferred to nursery shade and subsequently to the field conditions.
IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT CARALLUMA SARKARIAE LAVRANOS AND FRANDSEN
V. Raja Sreelatha, S. Karuppusamy, P.V. Krishna Reddy, and T. Pullaiah
Department of Botany, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Aantapur, India.
Protocol for in vitro propagation of Caralluma sarkariae Lavranos and Frandsen (Asclepiadaceae) through axillary bud multiplication was established. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2.0 mg/l BAP and 1.0 mg/l NAA were best suited for axillary bud proliferation inducing a mean of 8.25 shoots/node. Excision and culture of the nodal segments from the in vitro shoots on fresh medium with same concentrations of BAP and NAA facilitated development of more than 15 shoots/node. Subsequent cultures enhanced the rate of shoot proliferation. Shoots developed were rooted best on half strength MS medium with 0.1NAA. Starting from a single node explant 200 rooted shoots were obtained within 150 days. Plantlets established in pots exhibited 75% survival.
ESTABLISHMENT OF CALLUS FROM RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA FOR OPTIMIZATION OF HIGH YIELDING RESERPINE THROUGH IN VITRO MANAGEMENT
Raman Dang1*, Kuntal Das2, Vikram Singh1 and P.E. Rajashekaran3
*1Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Hosur Main Road, Bangalore- 27, India.
2 St. John's Pharmacy College, R.P.C. Layout, Vijayanagar, Bangalore-40, India.
3IIHR, Dept. of Plant Genetics, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore-80, India.
Rauwolfia serpentine is commonly known as Indian sanke root, belonging to the family of apocynaceae. Reserpine, one of the major important medicinally active components which is prone to changes due to environmental and geographical conditions, age of plants as well as type of fertilizer used. Hence it is necessary to control these changes to obtained high yielding constant amount of active constituent through in vitro technology. MS medium was used with various concentration of phyto-hormones and results show half strength MS medium supplemented with 1 ppm of 2,4-D and 2 ppm of kinetin gave good textured high alkaloid yielding callus in 28 days whereas combinations of IAA and NAA show no response for callus growth in 30 days. The yield was confirmed by using HPLC and HPTLC study where reserpine from callus gave higher percentage (0.051% and 0.057% respectively) than that of cultivated one (0.049% and 0.050% respectively).
USE OF MICRONUTRIENT TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF THE ANTIMALARIAL PLANT ARTEMISIA ANNUA L.
Shilpa Shitole and K. N. Dhumal
Department of Botany, University of Pune, Pune,
E mail: email@example.com
There is pressing global demand for Ayurvedic drugs, hence standardization of cultivation practices and improvement in productivity of therapeutically active secondary metabolites is the urgent need. For this physiological investigations were carried out on wondrous antimalarial plant Artemisia annua L. This highly aromatic, annual herb belongs to family Asteraceae. It is traditionally grown in China for artemisinin, which is sesquiterpene lactone peroxide. Presently malaria has again emerged as an alarming disease in India. As a result of this, there is shortage of antimalarial drug, which can be fulfilled by Artemisia annua. The ten celled biserriate glandular trichomes occurring on leaves, stem and especially inflorescence sequester artemisinin. Considering this the present investigation was carried out to improve growth, yield and physiological status of Artemisia through micronutrient technology. The foliar application of micronutrients like Zn, Mg, Cu, and Fe (250, 500, 1000mg/l) was given at 30 DAT up to the maturity stage at the interval of seven days. The distilled water sprayed plants were considered as control. The improvement in basic metabolites through micronutrient application may probably lead to enhancement in artemisinin content. However lower concentrations (250 and 500mg/l) were more stimulatory as compared to higher concentration treatments. The response of Artemisia annua for basic macromolecules and metabolites was depending on concentration and micronutrients applied. The trials for improvement in artemisinin are in progress.
GERMPLASM EVALUATION OF COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT BACOPA MONNIERI (BRAHMI) THROUGH CHEMOPROFILING TECHNIQUE FOR MASS PRODUCTION OF QUALITY GERMPLASM
S.K.Tiwari*,Vijay Bahadur**,Amit Pandey, Shweta Mishra, and M. P. Goswami
Forest Genetics, Plant Propagation and Biotechnology Division,
State Forest Research Institute, Polipathar, Jabalpur(M.P.) 482021, India Email:firstname.lastname@example.org
Bacopa monniera Linn. commonly known as "Brahmi" belonging to family Scrophulariaceae is an important annual medicinal creeping plant found at wet, damp and marshy area of Madhya Pradesh. Brahmi has been an important constituent of Indian Ayurvedic systems of medicines. The leaves of Bacopa monniera contains bacoside-A, bacoside-B important alkaloids (saponine) which are used in preparation of several drugs particularly brain tonic. The alkaloids percent varies according the geographical distribution. Therefore a simple quick and accurate HPLC method using C-18 ODS-2 column for the determination of these alkaloids is highlighted in this paper and the best germplasm in terms of highest alkaloid content of this species has been evaluated. The highest concentration of bacoside was found at Seoni region. Large scale propagation of this certified germplasm is also in progress through micropropagation.
IN VITRO MICROPROPAGATION STUDIES FROM AXILLARY BUD EXPLANTS OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA DUNAL. - AN IMPORTANT ANTITUMOR
Dept. of Biotechnology, S.V.University, Tirupathi – 517 502, A.P., India.
Withania somnifera Dunal. (Ashwagandha) belongs to the family of Solanaceae, growing to a height of 30-150 cm. It is one of the important medicinal cash crops in many states of India. It has antibiotic, antiviral, antiamoebic, antiarthritic and anti-inflammatory properties. 'withaferin A' found in this plant shows marked tumour-inhibitory activity. Its fruits and seeds are diuretic, hypnotic, maticatory and employed in curdling plant milk to prepare vegetarian cheese. They are also rich in saponins and can be used as substitutes of soap. An effective in vitro protocol was developed by using nodal explants of W.somnifera for multiple shoot induction on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. The MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of cytokinins alone and in combination with various auxins were used for high frequency shoot regeneration. The regenerated shoots were rooted on full strength MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of IBA and IAA. Nearly 90% of the rooted plantlets were survived when transferred to nursery shade and to the field conditions.
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR VARIATIONS AMONG THE TWO LAND RACES/ GENDERS OF PIPER BETEL (L.) – AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT
N.Syamala Devi, P.M.Swamy and C.V.Naidu*
Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College, A.Rangampet,Tirupati
*Dept. of Biotechnology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati
Piper betel belongs to the family Piperaceae, shade loving perennial root climber. The betel is a spice whose leaves have medicinal properties. It is being propagated through stem cuttings. The active ingredients of betel oil, which is obtained from the leaves, are primarily a class of alkylbenzene compounds. Several terpenes and terpenoids are present in the betel oil as well, additionally, these are two sequiterpenes, cadinene and caryophyllene. Piper betel is one of the most important medicinal plants of many countries including India. The present study is aimed at understanding the physiological and molecular variations among the two locally cultivated land races / genders of Piper betel L. The following parameters were studied such as fresh and dry weights, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and b, protein content, phenolic acids, phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity, electrophoresis of soluble proteins by SDS PAGE and PCR analysis. The two land races / genders of Piper betel differed in both morphological and physiological aspects.
MICRO PROPAGATION OF STEVIA REBAUDIANA
N.Kasthuri, P.Tej Pavan*, T.Shobhan Babu and S.Deepak Kumar
Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Maisammaguda, Dhulapally(post), Secunderabad-14.
Stevia rebaudiana belonging to Asteraceae family is a sub-tropical plant which prefers a climate where the mean temperature is 75° F. and is always semi-humid. It is commonly called as sweet leaf of Paraguay, honey leaf, sweet herb…etc. Over 100 phytochemicals have been discovered in stevia since. It is rich in terpenes and flavonoids. The constituents responsible for stevia's sweetness are eight novel plant chemicals called glycosides. Of these eight glycosides, one called stevioside is considered the sweetest - and has been tested to be approximately 300 times sweeter than sugar. Stevioside, comprising 6-18% of the stevia leaf, is also the most prevalent glycoside in the leaf. Other sweet constituents include steviolbioside, rebausiosides A-E, and dulcoside A. Stevioside is highly stable over a wide range of PH-(3-9) and high temperature(100 per hour).Pharmacological action includes hypoglycemic, hypotensive (lowers blood pressure), cardiotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the heart), antimicrobial.Plant tissue culture offers a potential alternative for phytochemicals which are of importance to food and pharmaceutical industries. Conventional processes has number of disadvantages (i,e) plants are often not available because of geographical restrictions and the product yield and quality may be effected by unforeseen environmental conditions. With an increased demand for Stevioside in food and pharmaceutical industry, commercial cultivation has become attractive, and there is a need for the production of homogenous populations composed of improved genotypes. Unfortunately, the presence of a high degree of self-incompatibility in Stevia results in wide variation of the glycoside content in leaves and impairs the efficiency of conventional breeding method. Tissue culture studies may offer viable alternative to conventional propagation and breeding methods. The review of literature indicated that the amount of stevioside varies with cultivators and is therefore important to maintain elite cultivators by micropropogation. Hence, micropropogation protocol was developed for mass multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana. Surface sterilization of the explants of Stevia rebaudiana was standardized using Ethanol, Bavistin, and HgCl2 at different concentrations and time of exposure. The protocol for multiple shoots production, surface sterilization of explants, rooting and elongation media was standardized.
MICROPROPAGATION IN EUPHORBIA HYPERICIFOLIA A MEDICINAL PLANT
Usha Nagalakshmi, R., Mallikharjuna, B., and Rama Gopal, G.
Division of Plant Biotechnology, Dept. of Botany, S.V. University, Tirupati – 517502
Medicinal plants continue to be an important therapeutic aid for alleviating ailments of human kind. Euphorbia hypericifolia, a medicinal plant used in the management of gastro intestinal and respiratory disorders contains caoutchouc, resin, tannin and gallic acid which may act on sympathetic nervous system. Invitro studies of this plant showed high frequency shoot bud induction and regeneration from leaf and nodal explants on MS medium with BAP (1-9 mg/L), kinetin individually and in combination with IAA (0.2-0.5mg/L). Maximum frequency of multiple shoot bud induction was observed at 3-6 mg/L BAP and 0.2-0.5 mg /L of IBA. Abundant callus with different morphogenic potentials was produced from leaf, node, root and pedicel explants using combinations of IAA, NAA, BAP and kinetin. Profuse rooting was also induced by BAP and NAA from callus. Micro shoots developed in the above cultures rooted on 1/2 strength MS medium with 0.4 to 0.6 mg/L of IAA. The rooted plantlets were transferred to plastic pots containing compost in culture room.
LOW COST PROTOCOL FOR IN VITRO STUDIES ON "INDIAN GINSENG"WITHANIA SOMNIFERA DUNAL
Namdeo A. G., Jadhav T. S., Yadav K. Sharma A. and Mahadik K. R.
Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth Dept. of Phyto-Biotechnology, Pune.
Withania somnifera Dunal (Aswagandha) or "Indian Ginseng" has been used in Ayurvedic medicines for more than 2500 years. It is known for its rejevenative, antistress and adaptogen properties. Commercial cultivation of Withania is associated with plant to plant variation in yields of bioactive compounds and long gestation period (4-6 years) between planting and harvesting. These plants do not have natural ability for vegetative propagation and the variability generated by sexual recombination is very high. Plant tissue culture can be an attractive alternative to overcome these constraints. Sucrose contributes to about 95% of total cost of tissue culture medium. Apart from sucrose, cost of double distilled water contributes maximum to the cost of the medium. In present investigation, experiments were performed in medium prepared in tap water and market sugar as carbon source. Callus cultures were initiated from leaf explants on MS medium supplemented with BAP, kinetin, NAA and coconut water. Highest frequency (85%) of callus induction was observed in medium containing 0.5 ppm NAA within two weeks of incubation. Development of adventitious shoots occurred from calli in medium supplemented with 2 ppm BAP. Excellent rate of shoot multiplication was achieved from nodal parts in medium with BAP and IAA. About 25±5 shoots were produced from single bud in solid medium but rapid multiplication (45±5 shoots) was observed in liquid medium containing 0.5 ppm BAP and 0.5 ppm IAA after one week incubation. Roots were initiated in medium supplemented with 2 ppm IAA from in vitro developed shoots. Qualitative analysis by TLC and HPTLC revealed that tissue culture developed shoots produced same bioactive compounds as that of natural plants.
EFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON IN VITRO MORPHOGENESIS
OF LIPPIA NODIFLORA (L.)
Rich, Michaux, N. Raaman, P. Arjun and C. Sivaraj
Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Chennai.
Multiple shoot production was successfully achieved from shoot, leave and node explants, and simultaneous callus produced from the nodes and leaves. The Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium was supplemented with combinations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KN) for multiple shoot production. Maximum of six shoots were produced per node with the combination of IAA (0.5 mg) and KN (0.5 mg/L) from the node. Callus produced from the base of the node and leave in combination with NAA with BAP and KN isolated for organogenesis. Organogenesis from callus was achieved with the combination of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (0.5 mg) and BAP (0.5 mg) as well as kinetin (KN) (0.5 mg). Microshoots were transferred for rooting in IBA and KN containing medium, in which maximum roots were produced in indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (1 mg) and kinetin (KN) (0.5 mg) medium well rooted plantlets were established in the field.
HIGH FREQUENCY DIRECT SHOOT REGENERATION FROM LEAF EXPLANTS OF BACOPA MONNIERI (L.)-AN IMPORTANT MEMORY ENHANCER PLANT
C. Shanti, A.Ganga Bhavani and C. V. Naidu
Bacopa monnieri is popularly called as thyme leaved gratiola, commonly called as Brahmi because of its clinical value or the thinking person herb. It belongs to the family of Scrophulariaceae. An effective protocol for high frequency in vitro plant regeneration was devolped by using leaf explants of Bacopa monnieri. The Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins were used for high frequency shoot regeneration was achieved by using leaf explants. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium supplemented with IBA, IAA and NAA. Nearly 95% of the rooted plantlets were survived when transfered to nursery shade and subsequently to the field.
EFFECTIVE GROWTH AND STORAGE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANT AMARANTHUS TRICOLOR L.
G. Fareeda* and N. Savithramma**
*Dept. of Biochemistry and * Dept.of Botany. S.V.University, Tirupati 517 502, India.
Amaranthus tricolor is a well known medicinal plant belongs to the family Amaranthaccac. The linear herb is used to cure different ailments. The roots arc used in mcnolThigia, leucolThoea and dysentery. Leaves to cure pill's, srro fu 1:1 , strangury and blood disorders. The whole plant is meant for hepatoprotcttive. Apart from medicinal values the plant is used as poor man's food. Amaranthus fric%r cultivate extensively as a green leafy vegetable for its high nutritional values. The plant wilts immediately after harvest due to the changes in leaf water potential. Hence the storage of leaves become a problem. To improve its shelf life period and maintained the thickness of leaves calcium is supplemented during its growth as the Ca2+ is known for its crucial role in maintaining water potential and other physiological metabolism.
THE INFLUENCE OF FRUCTOSE, GLUCOSE and SUCROSE ON FlAVONOLIGNANS FORMATION IN SILYBUM MARIANUM CALLUS CULTURE
Asghari G., Salimian T.
Isfahan Pharmaceutical Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences,
Silybum marianum has been recognized as an antihepatotoxic plant. The active constituents of Silybum marianum include a group of flavonolignans known collectively as silymarin. Slymarin production by cultured cells of Silybum marianum has already been reported. Also, it was reported that physiochemical factors can influenced silymarin production in S. marinum cell cultures. Callus culture of S. marianum were established by transferring seedling on solidified MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l 2, 4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 0.2 mg/l kinetin. Optimal callus were subcultured to medium containing different concentration of sugars including fructose, glucose, and sucrose. Then cultures were harvested after 28 days, dried and extracted with methanol. Quantitative analyses of flavonolignans were carried out using spectrophotometric method.Higher levels of flavonolignans accumulation were observed in cultures containing 6% of all three sugars comparing with concentrations of 3% and 1.5%.It seems flavonolignans production in callus culture of S. marianum influenced by concentration of sugars rather than of sugars type.
STANDARDIZATION OF MICRO PROPAGATION TECHNIQUEIN
ALOE VERA (L) BURM.F
T.Saraswathi, E.Vadivel and P.Hemalatha
Horticultural College and Research Institute, TNAU, Coimbatore
E mail: email@example.com
Due to wide use of aloe products as alternative medicine and dietary supplement, its demand is increasing. The production of aloe leaves is insufficient to meet the industry demand and there was a short fall of 641.5 tonnes in the year 2001-2002 itself (Bhattacharya and Hansda, 2003). Because of wild plant collection, the pressure on existing natural population is increasing. The scientific cultivation of aloe is limited and there is a need to undertake its large scale cultivation. Propagation of aloe is primarily by means of offshoots, but propagation rate is slow as a single plant can produce only 3-4 off shoots, in a year which is insufficient for undertaking commercial plantations (Meyer and Staden, 1991). Hence, standardization of micropropagation technique is essential for getting uniform genetic material. With this objective the present investigation was taken up. Micropropagation studies in A. vera (L.) Burm.F. five explants viz., leaf base, leaf middle portion, leaf tip, shoot tip and root bits were tried. Among these, only shoot tips responded positively for multiple shoot induction. Highest (89.33%) and earliest (12 days) shoot induction and more number of multiple shoots (7.40) were observed in MS media containing BAP (3 mg l-1) + IBA (0.2 mg l-1) + Activated Charcoal (200 mg l-1) treatments. Multiple shoot induction was maintained up to third subculturing in the above treatments. Best rooting (98.77) was observed in 1/2MS + IBA (1 mg l-1) + Activated Charcoal (200 mg l-1) treatments. However longest (4.6 cm) and more number of roots (4.43) were recorded in MS + IBA (1 mg l-1) + Activated Charcoal (200 mg l-1) combination. For hardening, pot mixture containing vermiculite + red earth + sand (1:1:1) was optimum.
EFFECT OF EXTREMELY LOW CURRENTS ON THE PRODUCTION OF AZADLRACHTIN IN NEEM IN SUSPENSION CULTURES
Poorna Sri Devi, V. Sunitha and Isba Sal
Sri Sathya Sai University, Anantapur Campus, Anantapur - 515001 A.P.
Standardization of optimum azadirachtin production from elite neem callus lines electrostimulated with O.62±O.03/lA revealed 5 days treatment as most effective. Investigation using a combination of biotic elicitor and low electrical currents in the suspension cultures of elite neem cell lines enhanced azadirachtin production. Azadirachtin production increased 10-fold (585.53/lgll) in 6 day old electrostimulated neem cell suspeDsion cultures when compared to non stimulated normal cultures (57.074/lg/I). When electrostimulation is coupled with the treatment of homogenate of Aspergillus niger as biotic elicitor (9351.11/lg/l) azadirachtin production increased 16-fold over electro stimulated and 160-fold over normal cultures.
STUDIES ON MICROPROPAGATION AND IN VITRO FLOWERING OF SOLANUM VIARUM DUNAL L. – AN IMPORTANT CARDIOPATHY PLANT
K.V. Saritha* and C.V. Naidu
*Dept. of Future Studies and Biotechnology, S.V.University, Tirupati, A.P., India.
Solanum viarum is an erect, divaricately branched, unarmed, suffrutescent annual herb. It belongs to the family Solanaceae. It is known as Kaccipandu by local people. This Ethan botanical herb is known to have lot of medicinal properties. The decoction of the plant has influence on cardiac activity and in the regulation of blood pressure. The leaves are used as poultice for rheumatic and gouty joints and skin diseases. A decoction of the flowers and berries is useful in cough, rat bite, pulmonary tuberculosis, bronchitis, and diarrhea. The root bark is useful in opthalmopathy and hepatitis. The leaves and berries are especially important as a cure for gastrohelcosis. In view of its Ethan botanical importance, an efficient micro propagation protocol was developed. Nodal explants of Solanum viarum Dunal L. showed shoot proliferation after 7-10 days on Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS) (1962) containing Benzyl Adenine 1.5 mg/L and Indole-3-acetic acid 0.1 mg/L. In vitro flowering occurred following subculture in some of the nodal explants on MS medium fortified with Kinetin 2.0 mg/ L and Indole-3-acetic acid 0.1 mg/L. Rooting observed on half strength MS medium with Indole-3-butyric acid 0.5 mg/L.
MICROPROPAGATION AND CRYOPRESERVATION OF RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINE AN ENDANGERED MEDICINAL PLANT OF CENTRAL INDIA
S.K.Tiwari; Vijay Bahadur; Amit Pandey and Pankaj Bhargava,
State Forest Research Institute, Polipathar, Jabalpur(M.P.) 482008 India Email:firstname.lastname@example.org
Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex. Kurz. commonly known as "Sarpgandha" is a tropical and perennial plant belongs to family Apocynaceae. The tuber part contains several alkaloids. The prominent ones are serpentine and reserpine, which are used to cure hypertension and other mental disorders. Conventionally it is propagated by seeds and vegetative methods of propagation. Since, the plant is endangered and the conventional methods of propagation are not sufficient for its conservation. Therefore the micropropagation method has been standardized on MS medium, supplemented with BAP 4.0mg/lt and IAA 2.0mg/lt. through nodal segments. The highly rejuvenated micro-shoots were used for long term cryopreservation experiments. The cryopreservation technique using vitrification and encapsulation dehydration techniques have also been standardized at -196 ºC in liquid nitrogen. The cryopreserved materials were successfully regenerated on MS cultured medium.
INVITRO SCREENING OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF RUBIA CORDIFOLIA
R. Baskar, K. Haritha, G. Sudhakara, D. Sarala kumari
Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur
Free radicals from both endogenous and exogenous sources are implicated in the etiology of several degenerative diseases. Antioxidant activity of Rubia cordifolia, a widely used medicinal plant was investigated. The aqueous extract of Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae) (RCAREt) roots was found to inhibit lipid peroxidation (LPO) and scavenge superoxide (02o), nitric oxide (NOo), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPHo) radicals and reducing power invitro. The extract was found to inhibit lipid peroxides generated by the induction of Fe3+/ ADP/ ascorbate in rat liver homogenate from concentration 200µg/ml to 1000 µg/ml RCAREt in a dose dependent manner. The scavenging capacity of the extract for superoxide, nitric oxide and DPPHo radicals are found to be increased in a dose dependent manner from 50 to 200µg/ml 100 to 400µg/ml and 50 to 600µg/ml respectively. Reducing power was increased with increase in concentration from 50 to 400µg/ml and remained stable at 500µg/ml. However, no noticeable scavenging capacity against hydroxyl (OH) and hydrogen peroxide radicals (H2O2) was observed.These results suggest that RCAREt is a powerful free radical inhibitor or scavenger, as well as a primary antioxidant that react with free radicals, which may limit free radical damage.
SOME BIOTECHNOLOGICAL METHODS FOR ASSESSING QUALITY OF COCOON AND SILK FROM THE SILKWORMS
M. Lokesh Kumar
C.M.R College of Engineering Technology, Hyderabad
Cocoon weight, shell weight, shell percentage, filament length and deniere like certain parameters are essentia for assessing the quality of silk cocoon weight can be measured by randomly taking 20 cocoons and can be weighed in an electric balance and can be expressed in grams / cocoon. Shell weight indicates the total quality of silk in the selected cocoons. The selected cocoons can be cut open with the help of a sharp blade and the shell weight can be measured. The mean of the shell can be expressed as grams / shell. Shell percentage in the ratio between shell weight and cocoon weight.Silk filament length indicates the realable filament length of silk filament from a cocoon. It can be measured in a mono cocoon reeling machine called Eupprouvette machine and the filament length can be calculated.
ALPHA-MANGOSTIN AS INDUCER OF APOPTOSIS.
K.P.Lakshmi Kumari. P.Uma and Maheswari Devi
Department of Applied Microbiology, Sri Padmavathi Mahila University, Tirupati
Apoptosis or Programmed cell death is highly organized physiological process to eliminate damaged or abnonnal cells. The outstanding feature of apoptosis is its remarkable stereotypical morphology showing condensation of nuclear heterochromatin, cell shrinkage and loss of positional organization of organelles in the cytoplasm. The nuclear DNA of apoptotic cell shows a characteristic laddering pattern of oligonucleosomal fragments. This fragmentation is regarded as the hallmark of apoptosis. The rate of apoptosis significantly affects the lifespan of both normal and cancer cells. Thus, modulating apoptosis may be useful in the prevention of cancer. Hence, there is a continued need for either synthetic or natural products to use in the use in the design of potential chemotherapeutic agents. However, a vast amount of synthetic work has contributed relatively small. The proposed study is based on the premise that Alpha-mangostin induces apoptosis by the regulation of Nf-kB pathway; we have chosen breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 to demonstrate the effect of alpha-mangostin on apoptosis. To support the apoptotic nature of alpha-mangostin, we performed the DNA fragmentation analysis on 2.0% agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed the typical DNA fragmentation in a concentration- dependent manner.
EVALUATION OF LIGNANS CONTENT IN UNORGANISED AND ORGANISED CALLUS CULTURES OF PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS
R.Chitra, K.Rajamani and E.Vadivel
Horticulture College and Research Institute, TNAU Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
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Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae) known popularly in the Indian System of Medicine as 'Bhumyamlaki' has been traditionally used in the treatment of a variety of ailments including hepatic disorders. Furthermore, the plant has been reported to possess antibacterial, anticrustacean, antifungal and antiviral activities. Lignans content and profile were evaluated in plant tissues of in vitro grown Phyllanthus amarus. The major lignans viz., Phyllanthin and Hypophyllanthin were estimated under High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Different types of in vitro cultures were used. Among the cultures, multiple shoots with roots derived from nodal segment recorded higher amount of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin. Callus derived on MS medium supplemented with 0.4 mgl-1 NAA and 4.0 mgl-1 2, 4-D to produce lower amount of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin.
IN VITRO REGENRATION STUDIES IN STEVIA REBAUDIANA
Purushotam B1, Anuradha2, Sivareddykotla3, Jayapal Gowd4
East West College, Padmashree College, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa
Stevia is a perennial shrub that belongs to the Asteraceae family. It has high medicinal value and often used for treating hypoglycemia, diabetes, flavor enhancer, and skin healing and also as a neutrocetical. Application of micro propagation in the horticulture industry has been recognized in the early part of 1970 it has become indispensable in propagation of many valuable medicinal plants. Traditional propagation methods through Seeds and vegetative propagation. They have several limitations like low multiplication rate and time consuming and labor intensive .Alternative to this is invitro micro propagation. In the present study direct organogenesis by auxiliary shoot proliferation and induction of callus on in vitro leaf explants has been demonstrated. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzyl- amino purine(BAP)alone and in combination with alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)(With different concentrations).The surface sterilized shoot tip and leaves (without petiole) were inoculated on MS medium. The inoculated culture were incubated at 25+_ 2 degrees photoperiod of 16 hours. The frequency of explants inducing shoot proliferation was scored in 15 days and 30 days in five replications for each experiment. At a concentration of BAP 2.5 mg/liter has produced maximum number of shoots and leaves i.e; 80% shoot proliferation. The increase or decrease in BAP concentration from 2.5 mg has resulted shoot proliferation lower frequency(15%). Combination of BAP and NAA was also found to be responsive for shoot proliferation with less frequency (6%).Therefore 2.5 mg BAP was found to be optimum for maximum shoot proliferation and combination of auxin was not beneficial .Callus initiation was found to be maximum in media supplemented with a combination of BAP 2mg/literand 2,4 D (0.5mg/liter).The callus color was green ,hard and compact. Visual observations suggested that this callus has undergone morphogenesis as well as embryogenesis. Upon transfer in to rooting medium The plantlets obtained in vitro from direct regeneration using shoot tip showed formation of roots in media contains auxin such as Indole butyric acid.(IBA).Invitro micro propagationis best method than traditional methods .
IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BRAZILIN, A POLYPHENOL FROM CAESALPINIA SAPPAN LINN. HEARTWOOD
A. Saraswathy and R.Shakila
Capatin Srinivas Murthi Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda and Siddha
Central council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH,Chennai
Pattanga Caesalpinia sappan Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) is an indigenous, fast growing, small tree commonly found in Southern parts of India. The heartwood (sappan wood) is the official part which is used for ulcer, disorders of blood, burning sensation diarrhoea, dysentery in Ayurveda. It is a chief ingredient of Patrāngāsava, a well known Ayurvedic formulation widely used in female reproductive tract disorders especially in leucorrhea. Some of the compounds reported from the heartwood are brazilin, brazilein, caesalpins, protosappanins, sappan chalcones, neoprotosappanin, neosappanone A, homoisoflavonoids, hematoxylin, hematin, 8-methoxy bonducellin, quercetin, rhamnetin, ombuin, taraxerol, octacosanol, β-sitosterol, β-amyrin glucoside, amino acids, sugars and fixed oil. The ethyl acetate, ethanol and water extracts of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. heartwood have been reported for in-vitro and in-vivo antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging assay method. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of brazilin, the major compound is screened by Ferric Thio Cyanate (FTC) and Thio Barbituric Acid (TBA) methods using vitamin E and Vitamin C as standards. Brazilin showed antioxidant activity comparable to that of standards.
INVESTIGATIONS ON MICROPROPAGATION OF ACALYPHA INDICA LINN.
N. Raaman, L. Hariprasath and R. Jegadeesh
Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Chennai
Acalypha indica is a medicinally important herb, which belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. The plant is used in ayurvedic and homeopathic preparations. A. indica is well known for its antimicrobial, anti-fertility, wound healing and diuretic properties. Considering the importance of A. indica, the present study aimed at standardizing a protocol for the in-vitro propagation of A. indica. The callus formation in leaf and shoot explants were observed on MS medium amended with different hormones. MS medium supplemented with Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) 2mg showed the highest callus induction (Shoot explants -80% and leaf explants – 72%). Organogenesis from callus of 82% was achieved with IBA (1.5mg). Various concentrations of other hormones like IAA and combinations of IBA and BAP, also showed moderate shoot induction. The direct shoot induction in nodal explants was observed to be 82% with the hormone concentration of IBA (1.5mg). The maximum percentage of shoot elongation (86%) was found in MS medium amended with Gibberelic acid (GA3) (1.5mg). The shoot ere rooted on MS medium supplemented with 1mg IBA and 1mg Kinetin (KN). In-vitro plantlets were transferred to pots containing a mixture of vermiculite and soil (1:1) for acclimation for a period of three weeks.
CLONAL MULTIPLICATION OF FIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM NILGIRI BIOSPHERE RESERVE AS INFLUENCED BY GROWTH HORMONES
Paulsamy, S., P. Senthilkumar and M. Sivashanmugam
Department of Botany, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore
To enhance the population size, five medicinal plants such as Acmella calva, Cayratia pedata, Disporum leschenaultianum, Lycianthes bigeminata and Ophiorrhiza mungos which are reported to have lower seed germination and hence the less perpetuation in their shola forests of Nilgiris were attempted for clonal multiplication as influenced by various concentrations and combinations of auxins viz. IBA and NAA. The results shows stem cuttings of all the five species showed significant increase in rooting after the treatment with IBA and NAA at 2000ppm each. However Acmella calva responded well than the other species do for this attribute in this concentration. It is further observed that the growth of root for all the species needed slightly higher concentration of NAA along with IBA. Hence it is suggested that the clonal propagules raised through this standardized protocol may be introduced in the Nilgiris sholas for their increase in population and conservation of species as well.
MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KURNOOL DISTRICT USED IN UNANI
SYSTEM OF MEDICINE
Mohammed Obaidullah, S. Nazneen Parveen and T. Shahli Saheb
Osmania College, Kurnool, AP. India.
Kurnool District is often called "Gateway of Rayalaseema". Etymologically, Kurnool is a corrupted form of Kandenavolu. It has very rich", plant diversity. It lies between longitudes of 76° 58' - 78° 56' and latitudes 14° 54' - 16° 14'. Eastern ghats occupied by Nallamallais and southern region by Yerramallais forests. History of medicine dates back to origin of life ever since the man settled. It was part of ancient civilizations such as Babylonian, Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Chinese and Indian civilizations.Infact the dawn of Unani Medicine originated in 500 B.C by Greek philosopher Hippocrates (460 - 377 B.C), the founder father of Unani System. Unan refers Greece. It was handed over to Arab world and subsequently became Greco - Arab medicine. He propounded "Concept of Humours". Humour (Iqlaat) refers to liquid component of human body, and it is of 4 types viz. 1. Blood (Khoon) 2.Phlegm (Balgham), 3. Bile (Safrah) and 4. Black Bile (Sauda). The balanced composition and ratio of humours determines the health of a person. Any imbalance results in disease manifestation. The Unani System migrated to India in 12th century B.C through Central Asia, promoted by Moghul Empire and adapted by Indians as native system of medicine. Since then it is being followed as native system of Indian medicine along with Ayurveda, Siddha and Homeopathy.The present paper will highlight the significance and medicinal importance 01 some locally available common medicinal plants used in Unani System 01 medicine, such as Aegle marmelos (Bael), Centella asiatica (Bramhi Booti), Cassia fistula (Amaltaas), Tinospora cardifolia (Gilo), Phyllanthus amara 0, Datura metal (Jose maasil), Argemone mexicana (Satyanasi), Cassia angustifolia (Barg-e-Sana), Andrographis paniculata 0, Vitex negundo (Sambhalu), Withania somnifera (Asgand), Abutilon indicum (Kanghi Booti), Cardia latifolia (Sapistan), Aloe vera (Aelva or Gheekawar), Sphaeranthus indicus (Gul-e-mundi).Indiscriminate exploitation of these plants by tribals in rural areas causing panic, as some of the plants are on the verge of extinction. Need protection, conservation of these varieties.
EXPLORATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE TREATMENT OF CANCER
S.Neelufar Shama, B.Haritha Reddy, S.Mohana Lakshmi, Rahul Nair and
Ashok Kumar C.K.
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, A.Rangampet, Chandragiri mandal
Cancer is a group of diseases in which cells are aggressive (grow and divide without respect to normal limits), invasive (invade and destroy adjacent tissues), and sometimes metastatic (spread to other locations in the body). Cancer may affect people at all ages, even fetuses, but risk for the more common varieties tends to increase with age. Cancer causes about 13% of all deaths. The failure of conventional treatment like chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapies, had led to a new approach for alternative use of herbal medicines in boosting ones immune system response to cancer treatment. The medicinal plants contain phytochemicals that have a healing effect by increasing the immune system response and detoxification and antioxidants activity of the body. Medicinal plants can strengthen the immune system, restrain changes, reduce inflammation and lessen the side effects of conventional treatment through chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The various medicinal plants which are used in the cancer treatment are Vica rosea (Apocyanaceae), Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Hypoxis argentea (Hypoxidaceae), Merwilla plumbea, Scilla natalensis, Celtis Africana(Hyacinthaceae), Solanum aculeastrum (Solanaceae), Tulbaghia violacea (Alliaceae), Gunnera perpensa (Gunneraceae), Knowltonia capensis (Ranunculaceae), Cannabis sativa (Cannabaceae), Sutherlandia frutescens (Fabaceae), Pittosporum viridiflorum (Pittosporaceae), Curtisia dentata ( Cornaceae), Euphorbia ingens ( Euphorbiaceae), Celtis africana (Ulmaceae), Agapanthus africanus ( Agapanthaceae) , Morinda citrifolia ( Rubiaceae).
DEVELOPMENT OF NURSERY TECHNIQUE OF CINNAMOMUM TAMAL
Neeraj Kumar Sharma
Assistant Silviculturist, Hill Region, Fairy Hall, Tallitl, Nainital, 263002
Cinnamomum tamala (Tejpat) is a very important, evergreen tree species of sub-tropical region. In Uttarakhand, it is distributed on moist slopes between 500-2200 mt. above msl. Its leaves and bark are aromatic and used as highly valued spices in different dishes. It has medicinal value also. Owing to high medicinal and spice value, its high quality plantations have to be raised. Till now, the common methods for its propagation are transplanting of seedlings growing in nature and also from branch cuttings. Propagation through seeds is supposed to be difficult due to low germination percentage (10-20%). Hence, an experiment was carried out to enhance its propagation through seed in nursery. Experimental site was located at Bhujiaghat near Haldwani in Uttarakhand at 750 mt. above msl. Seeds of Cinnamomum tamala do not ripen simultaneously. Seeds start to ripen in March and continued till May. Seeds are heavily eaten by birds. Hence, seeds were collected through regular supervision of trees.Collected seeds were taken to nursery site in polybegs. In nursery, seeds were de-pulped by meshing through hands. Seeds were then dried in sun for 2-3 days. Raised beds of size 10*1 mt. were prepared and filled with soil and compost. Seeds were sown in these beds in lines. Watering was carried out regularly. Seeds start to germinate 15 days after sowing and completed germination within 45 days. Seedlings had four leaves after one month of germination. Then, these were transplanted in root trainers in shade house. After keeping the seedlings in shade house for about six months, these were shifted in open. After one year, seedlings attained the plantable size (15-20 cm.). 60-70% established plants were prepared finally. Nearly one lakh high quality plantable seedlings have been prepared through this method in two successive years (2005 and 2006).
CONSERVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANT RESOURCES OF ENDANGERED PLANTS FROM WESTERN GHATS.
Patil K.S., Chougule P.M., Mirgal A.B.
Department of Botany,Smt. Kasturbai Walchand College, Sangli (MS)
Many plants have been used for therapeutically purposes for various ailments for time immemorial in our country. Discovery of steroids and antibiotics however claimed to be revolutionized medicinal world for sometimes but very soon these two wonder drugs proved to be of limited use and side effects associated posed to be a serious problems. Since last few decades once again people have started banking upon medicinal plants for the treatment of diseases. The Western Ghat of Maharashtra is well known for its floristic diversity and also very rich in endemic medicinal species. But due to continuous over exploitation by tribal and culprit people, such species are on the way of extinction. We are going through collection of such species, then proper identification followed by ex-situ and in-situ conservation. Through micro-propagation the Biodiversity of such species is to be conserved. So far, no attempts have been made for conservation of these species. It is suggested that cultivation of these species be undertaken at suitable sites, seed banks, distribution of these species to various institutions and farmers. Through this paper elucidation the present state of our knowledge of endemic medicinal plants in Western Ghat and also proposing the strategies for their conservations.
EXPLORATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IN CHITTOOR, INDIA
Praveen Kumar G.*, Sireesha Rani P., Karuna Priyadarsini U.,
S. Mohana Lakshmi and Ashok Kumar C.K.
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Sree Sainath Nagar, Tirupati-517501
The present study is focused on the medicinal plants used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to deform the joints. About 1-2% of the world populations are affected by the rheumatoid arthritis. There are number of natural and safe hebal supplements that have been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A potential advantage of using herbs in rheumatoid arthritis is that, in addition of alleviating arthritis pain, they may provide positive effects that are not attained from drugs aimed solely at reducing pain due to inflammation. The natural supplements are using for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis are Borage oil, Fish oil and Vitamin E. Some herbs that are available in Chittoor district which are used to treat rheumatoid arthritis includes Alpenia galanga, Zinziber officinalis, Plumbago gelamicum, Ricinus communicus, Allium sativum, Boswellia.
A SURVEY ON ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS OF GUVVALACHERUVU STRAIT IN SESHACHALA HILL RANGE OF KADAPA DISTRICT A.P.
S. Rajagopal Reddy1 and Z. Vishnuvardhan2
1. Department of Botany, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa, -516 003, AP, India 2.Department of Botany, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur-510522, AP, India.
Many ethnic groups (Tribes) generally live in complete harmony with natural forests. These groups generally have complete knowledge about the indigenous plants that used traditionally in the treatment of many diseases and a ailements. The information on these ethano medicinal plants of many regions of our country needs proper documentation and evaluation. The present study area include Guvvalacheruvu forest region of Seshachala hill range in Kadapa district of A.P. It is dense closed dry deciduous forest extending nearly 110 sq km area .Several distinct tribal communities such as Yerukala, Yanadi, and Sugali live around and constantly interfering with these hilly tracts. An extensive survey of this area during the year 2005 -06 had revealed that nearly 60 medicinal plant species found traditionally used by these tribes for treatment of nearly 32 different ailments. The information on these ethno-medicinal plants was documented by consulting nearly 110 local informants who are the regular practitioners. The data clearly revealed that there are several plants such as Adathoda zeylanica, Aristolochia indica, Atlantia monophylla, Buchania axillaris, Crotan scabiosus, Enicostemma littorala, Euphorbia antiquoram, Gymnema sylvestris, Hemidesmus indicus, Lantana camara, Plumbago zeylanica, Rubia cordifolia, Sensevieria zeylanica, Strychnos nux-vomica, Terminalia aurjuna, Tinospora cordifolia, Wrightia tinctoria that have been used in treatment of various diseases that mainly includes Asthma, mouth ulcer, typhoid fever, rheumatism, paralysis, fits, leucoderma, snake bite, indigestion, diabetes, joint pains, sprains, mumps, dysentery, dyspepsia, fractures, malaria fever, menorriage. Many of these plants such as Strychnos nux-vomica, Helotropium indicum, Plumaria accuminata, Terminalia chebula, Ocimum sanctum are known to have theruptic properties against multiple diseases. All these local medicinal plants were collected, identified and classified the herbarium specimens are deposited in Dept. of Botany, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur. The information on various plant parts used, their medicinal importance and the mode of administration that has been documented is discussed in the light of recent scientific information on them.
ECO-FRIENDLY MANAGEMENT OF MULBERRY (MORUS ALBA L.) LEAF BLIGHT [FUSARIUM SOLANI (MART.) SACC.] THROUGH PHYTOEXTRACTS AND OILS OF CERTAIN MEDICINAL PLANTS.
CH. RAMANAMMA and C. RAJA GOPAL REDDY*.
N. S. P. R. Govt. Degree College for Women, Hindupur – 515 201, A P, India.
*A.P.State Sericulture Research and Development Institute, Kirikera, Hindupur, India.
Mulberry is the sole feed of the silkworm. Diseases are the major limiting factor in Mulberry cultivation for quantitative and qualitative leaf production. Good number of fungal pathogens causes variety of diseases to its foliage, stem and roots, because of its perennial nature. Foliar diseases affects the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the leaf. Leaf blight, caused by Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. is one of the most serious infestations, causing quantitative and qualitative leaf loss. Feeding of the silkworms with the infected leaves; affect their health which ultimately leads to crop failures or reduction in crop yield with poor quality cocoons. In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate the efficacy of phytoextracts and oils of certain Medicinal plants against the growth and development of Fusarium solani under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Under in vitro conditions, phytoextracts with 10.00% concentration were tested for their efficacy against the mycelial growth of the pathogen. Allium sativum showed the highest inhibition (71.67%), followed by Eucalyptus globules (50.22%), Leucas aspera (49.08%), Zingiber officinale (48.98%), Calotropis gigantia (46.65%), Mentha viridis (46.45%), Azadirachta indica (45.12%), and Datura metel with 36.75%. With regard to the oils, Neem oil - 3% showed the highest inhibition with 77.55%, followed by Madhuca indica oil - 3% (76.22%) and Cymbopogon citratus – 0.05% (72.44%). Basing on the results, it is to suggest that the phytoextracts and oils of the tested Medicinal plants can also be kept as one of the components in the integrated disease management of the Mulberry leaf blight, caused by Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc.
EXPLORATION OF HERBAL DRUGS USED IN WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY
K.M.Ramya Sravani, D. Sai Padmini, G.R. Saraswathy,E. Maheswari, and C.K. Ashok Kumar
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Tirupathi.
Wound, a clinical entity is as old as mankind but healing of chronic cutaneous wounds is still a great problem. Wound healing occurs by a process of connective tissue repair and ends by formation of fibrous scar, the predominant constituent of which is collagen. According to traditional medicine wounds have been treated topically with various medicinal herbs or their extracts since times immemorial. But till now a lot of research has been envisaged to develop better healing agents and it has been a challenging task to generate them and keep up pace with problems encountered. Since no synthetic wound healing agents are available till now, the searches for safer and effective wound healing agents from medicinal plants have become more important areas of active research. The present exploration reveals the plants that posses the wound healing activity.
DIVERSITY SCENARIO IN LIVING ORGANISMS
P.K. Sahu and T.R. Sahu
Dept. of Botany, Dr. Hari Singh Gour University Sagar (M.P.) 470003
All principal food crops of to-day are derived from wild species and the existence of genetic variability in the form of wild relatives of domestic crops is the source for continued improvement in yield and resistance to disease or stressful changes in environmental conditions. Many industries depend on plants and animals for tannin, resin, dye, oils and other raw materials. A large number of modern drugs originate from wild species of higher plants, animals and also from fungi and bacteria. Wild species help prevent pest out-breaks with only a small fraction of existing species inventorized. The diversity of biological resources promises numerous discoveries of useful products as yet unidentified. Wild plants and animal species are source of recreation and aesthetic pleasure to many people. They are deeply embedded in folklore and our shared heritage. They inspire works of art and expressions in language and figure prominently in religions. Biological diversity is also the characteristics of wild species and natural ecosystems that allows them to withstand external stress. Genetic variability within a species is the basis for its developing resistance to a disease or a change in a climate which would otherwise cause its extinction. Species diversity affords stability to ecosystems. Some of the susceptible species may be destryoed by a particular pollutant at one level in a food chain others which are more resistance may remain to reproduce in greater numbers and sustain the organisms which depend on them. At the same time we are becoming aware that more than 90% of our cohabitats on this planet currently remain undiscovered. A great number of them presumably disappear for-ever without our ever having known them. All these points will be discussed in this paper.
IMPACT OF CHROMIUM AND MANGANESE HEEAVY METAL ON THE
GROWTH OF PEA SEEDLING
Savita Gangwar, Ritika Misra, Indreshu K Gautam,Sanjay K.Garg and J N Maurya
Dept. of Plant Science, Faculty of Applied Sciences,
M.J.P.Rohilkhand Univercity, Bareilly-243001 (U P)
The study was initiate to evaluate the influence of different concentration (.05, .1, 1, 5 and 10mM) of Cr and Mn on the growth parameters i.e. seedling height, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll and protein contents and the GDH activity in the pea seedlings. Different concentrations of heavy metals were supplied in the nutrient medium (Hoagland's) to the growing seedlings. The .05 and .1mM concentrations of Cr and Mn slightly increased the growth parameters, chlorophyll and protein contents and the GDH activity in seedlings as compared to control; while the subsequent concentrations i.e. 1mM and 5mM of Cr and Mn were showed inhibitory effects on the above parameters. The higher concentration 10mM of Cr and Mn completely suppressed the germination of seeds. Thus the present study indicates that the higher concentrations of Cr and Mn are harmful to plant growth.
BIOTECHNOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS- A REVIEW.
N. Vijaya Kumar and P. Vijaya
Dept. of Sericulture, S.P.M.V.V, Tirupati, India.
India, a floristically rich country (Anon.1997). ranking tenth among the plant rich nations of the world and fourth in Asia, has atleast 45000 sps. of plant (excluding aquatic life forms) A significant proportion of these Sps. are employed for medicinal purposes in a variety of ways in allopathic or modern medicine, traditional medicine , in tribal and folk practice, beauty care and for export raw material. Less than 10% of the medical plants traded in the country are cultivated solely. 90% are collected from the wild. Traditionally tribals and rural people gather herbal raw material from forests. Many times loss of habitat, increasing urbanization and shrinking forest base are reasons for significant decline in the volume of raw materials produced. More significantly this resulted in irreversible loss of populations of medicinal plants whose size 'will too diminished to survive through natural means of sexual reproduction. Many of the drug plants which are at risk are Agarwood, J atamansi, Redsanders, Sarpagandha etc. It is then; fore imperative to conserve phytomedicinal weal (h by suitable scientific method. Biotechnology help in rapid and reliable taxonomic identification of material, elimination of redundancy in gene banks, molecular markers can be used for such purposes.Medicinal and aromatic plant sps at risk can be multiplied with minimum loss of time and reintroduced for protocoLS lor last multiplication of endangered sps could be very useful for taxa that are difficult to propagate through conventional means. In the present review the the protocols for invitro conservation of difficult to propagate medicinal and aromatic plants were discussed.
OVARIES OF PONGAM (PONGAMIA PINNATA): ITS ASSESSMENT IN AREAS AROUND BANGALORE
R.Devarai and R.Sundararaj
Institute of Wood Science and Technlogy, 18th Cross, Malleswaram, Bangalore
Pongamia pinnata (L.,) Pierre, commonly known as pongam or karanj is an important nitrogen fixing evergreen tree with multifarious uses. The bark, wood, seeds, root and leaves of this avenue cum plantation tree is put to several uses. The bark is utilized to make ropes and strings and also used as a medicine to treat wounds. The roots are used to treat abscesses. The crushed leaves and seeds are used as an antiseptic. Pongam oil is used for tanning leather, making soap, and as ointment to treat scabies, herpes and rheumatism and as illuminating oil. Presently it is emerging as an important source of biofuel and biopesticides. The source of pongam oil is mainly dependant on naturally growing trees. Most of the pongam trees occurring naturally or being grown suffer damage at all times and many times in an epidemic form, by various species of insects. Among the pests the infestation caused by ovary gall inducing insect is more economically important as it directly affect the yield of pongam seeds. In this context surveys were undertaken to assess the extent or galling in ovaries of pongam in plantations in areas around Bangalore and the findings were discussed in this communication.
THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CAMPUS, VISAKAKHAPATNAM, A.P.
J. Lenin Bapuji and S. Venkat Ratnam
Department of Botany, Andhra University
Wide range of medicinal plants have been crucial in sustaining the health and the well being of mankind till today. They have tried and tested local plants for a range of common health problems. The recent rediscovery of certain remarkable properties of plants gave new life to an ancient science. People who are residing by the side of the university campus, inherited such traditional knowledge through shamans who came from hilly areas and passed on the medicinal values of the plants to the local residents. The present study attempted to investigate the traditional plant use of the 150 plant species collected from Andhra University campus, Visakhapatnam, A.P and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants. Approximately about 150 angiosperm plants which are scattered through out the Andhra university campus have been collected and utilized for the medicine by the various shamans who are residing by the side of university campus area. These 150 plants of angiosperms are falling under mostly dicotyledons which includes Polypetalae, Gamopetalae, Monochlamydeae comprising several series, orders, and families which were listed orderly in the tabular form. Coupled with dicotyledons, 15 species of monocotyledons belonging to 8 families were also have been apprised for their medicinal value.
VOLVARIELLA BOMBYCINA SINGER – A NEW SPECIES IDENTIFIED
N. Raaman, R. Jegadeesh, K. Kumaresan and K. Periyasamy
Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Chennai
A species of mushroom Volvariella bombycina Singer which belongs to the family Pluteaceae was described for the first time in Tamilnadu – Chennai. Different macro and micro characters are taken into consideration for its proper identification and biochemical analysis. The nutritional requirement studies were carried out on synthetic and semi-synthetic media; as well as paddy straw used to evaluate vegetative growth of V.bombycina, edible mushroom. The optimum temperature that supported the best growth of this fungus was 35°C, while the optimum pH was 6.5. The best vegetative growth was obtained at 40% moisture content with 3 cereals and 6 different pulses for spawn preparation, among the cereals and pulses, sorghum grains were found to be best for mycelial growth. The antibacterial activity was carried out against 3 bacterial sp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus by the method of NCCLS M2-A4 disk diffusion method. All the bacterial sp. showed good inhibition.
EXPLORATION OF HERBAL ANTIOXIDANTS
G. Silpa Rani, R.E.Raghu Vikram , G. R. Saraswathy, E. Maheshwari and
C.K. Ashok Kumar.
SreeVidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Sree Sainath Nagar, Tirupathi-517102.
Oxidative stress is caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) which contribute to the etiology of disorders such as cancer, liver diseases, respiratory diseases, inflammatory response syndrome atherosclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease and may also be important in aging. Antioxidants are the molecules that slow or prevent the oxidation and thus the ROS. Antioxidants act by terminating the chain reaction involved in the redox chemical reaction and remove the radical intermediates and can inhibit other oxidative reactions by being oxidized themselves. Hence they are used to treat the oxidative stress caused by the release of free radicals. There are many antioxidants such as glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E as well as enzymes such as catalase, super oxide dismutase, and various peroxidases. This study reveals the different types of herbal antioxidants. Bacopa monneri, Puichera carolinensis, Rosa chinesis, Punica granatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Trianthema portulacastrum L., Pffia glomerata(spreng) Pederson., Acacia Arabica bark, Vitis vinifera(grape seed), Brazilian Ginseng, Ganoderma lucidium(Fr)., Theobroma coca, Opuntia ficusinica (Linn Mill fruit, Helichrysum italicum, Echinacea angustifolia, Ehinacea pallida, Ehinacea purpurea, Cassia auriculata, Foenniculum vulgare Mill, cititrus limettioides Tanaka, Murraya koenigii(Linn), Zingiber officinale, Maytenus ilicifolia root bark, Syzygium cuminii, Hydilla verticillata, Viscum album, Equisetum arnense, Raphidophora pertusa stem, Carthamu lanayus extract, Mammea lonifolia planch are the plants which have anti oxidant properties.
A REVIEW ON ANTI-TUSSIVE HERBS
G.R. Saraswathy *, E. Maheswari, Santh Rani Thakur.
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sri Padmavathi Mahila Visva Vidyalayam, Tirupati
The cough is a protective reflex mechanism that removes foreign material and secretions from the bronchi and bronchioles of the airways (foreign objects, catarrhs of the respiratory system, etc.), it is inappropriately stimulated in various situations like inflammation of the respiratory tract or neoplasia. In these cases, the cough has a pathological character and it is necessary sometimes to use cough-suppressant drugs. Use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments including anti tussive activity as they are safe devoid of adverse effects. Medicinal plants are an important source for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds, which have served and continue to serve as lead molecules for the development of new drugs. Thus this review may provide an insight into herbs possessing antitussive activity. The medicinal herbs proved to possess antitussive property are Abies webbiana Lindl, Adhatoda vasica, Althaea officinalis Linn., Arctium lappa L, Asparagus racemosus, Bergenia ciliata Sternb., Carum copticum, Cassia fistula, Crocus sativus, Cuminum cyminum Linn , Drymaria cordata Willd, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, Glycyrrhizae radix, Guiera senegalensis, herbal tea, Ionidium suffruticosam Ging, Jussiaea suffruticosa linn., Leucas lavandulaefolia, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Mahonia aquifolium (pursh) Nutt., Malva mauritiana L., Nigella sativa, Paederia foetida, Papaver somniferum, Passiflora incarnata, Prunus persica L Batsc, Rudbeckia fulgida, Salvia officinalis, Stemona tuberose, Terminalia belerica, Trichodesma indicum, Vigna trilobata and Xanthium strumarium.
EXPLORATION OF MEDICAL PLANTS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE.
Thanuja B., Swetha A., S.Mohana Lakshmi and Ashok Kumar C.K.
Sree Vidhyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Sree Sainath Nagar, Tirupati-517102 India
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive degenerative brain disease that results in impaired memory, thinking and behavior. It is the common cause for dementia and marked with reduced levels of acetylcholine, development of amyloid plaques, ssenile plaques and Neurofibrillary tangles. As the allopathic drugs have more side effects than the herbal products, the present study has been undertaken to explore the medicinal plants used in the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. The study revealed that the plants such as Macleaya cordata (boluohui), Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis), Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica), Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Securinega suffruticosa (yiyiqiu), Berberis species (sankezhen), Coptis chinenses (huanglian), Lycorus radiata (shisuan), Huperzia serrata, Lycopodium serratum, Mentha arvensis, Melissa officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Muria puama, Curcuma longa, Solanum nigrum are used in used In the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
HERBS IN THE TREATMENT OF RENAL STONES
Sri Siddhartha Pharmacy College, Nuzvid, A.P.
The urinary tract includes the kidneys, ureters and urethra. The urinary tract maintains the chemical balance of all body fluids and is a primary system for removal of waste products. The kidneys are responsible for maintaining the quality of blood that is vital for life. The kidneys are essential for maintaining the body's chemical balance and are therefore a major organ. Disorders of the kidneys are life threatening. The presence of stones in the kidneys is known as Renal Calculi. Ayurveda terms this problem as Vrukka Ashmari and in terms of medicine, it is known as Nephrolithiases. Ayurveda treats Nephrolithiases as a Kapha dosha disorder. Kapha dosha is responsible for pertaining to the symbiosis between the surroundings and the human body. Vitiation in the Kapha dosha can bring about accumulation of mineral deposits in the excretory tract, giving rise to kidney stones. Ayurveda has been quite efficient in curing problems with kidney stones. Both individual herbs and Ayurvedic herbs used in the treatment of kidney stones, with their actions on the human body. Some of the herbs involved in the treatment of kidney stones are the leaves of ayurvedic herb, Mooli (scientifically known as Raphanus sativus) are taken in order to eject the kidney stones. The juice of Tulsi leaves (scientifically known as Ocimum sanctum) in addition to honey causes the expulsion of kidney stones through urinary tract. Apart from the herbs mentioned above, the Ayurvedic preparations Kshara parpati, Shilajit, Ashmari hara kashaya, Chandraprabha are also known to have efficiency in treating renal calculi.
SOME COMMON HERBS IN THE TREATMENT OF GENERAL DISEASES
Manoj Kumar Katikala
Sri Siddhartha Pharmacy College, Nuzvid, A.P.
Any part of the vegetable species that can be used for medicine, cosmetic, culinary or such purposes are known as herbs. Medicinal herbs are the ones, which has medicinal value in any parts of it. There are several herbs, which are known for their medicinal properties. These medicinal herbs are in use since time immemorial. Ancient Indian text "Atharvana Veda" has mentioned several medicinal herbs and their benefits. In modern times too people are now increasingly turning to medicinal herbs as a source of alternative therapy. One of the major benefits of medicinal herbs is that they have no side effects. The common medicinal herbs that are used in everyday life are, Neem has been used for treating all sorts of skin problems for centuries. It contains Nimbidol and Gedunin, which have excellent fungicidal properties. Neem is extremely effective in treatment of skin disorders such as warts, scabies, psoriasis, eczema, and dandruff. Tulsi is worshipped in Indian culture as the purest and most sublime plant. It is extremely effective in treating skin disorders as it is a blood purifier and kills bacteria. Basil tea or tea with basil leaves provides relief to inflamed throat conditions. Eclipta alba as hepatic deobstruent and tonic, alterative, emetic, purgative, antiseptic, antiviral. Not only these, several other herbs are involved in the treatment of various diseases.
IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS USED FOR GYNECOLOGICAL DISORDERS BY CHENCHU TRIBES OF NALLAMALAI REGION
N. Yasodamma, C. Meera Saheb, G.Prasad Babu and A. Suvarna Latha
Dept. of Botany, S. V. University, Tirupati.
During 1998-2000 the traditional herbal medicinal practices of Chenchu tribes of Nallamalai forest range of Andhra Pradesh, have been surveyed and it has been came to know that about 31 angiospermic species which belongs to 24 families were used by the Chenchu tribals for curing various gynecological disorders. Chenchu tribal people are distributed all over Andhra Pradesh but predominantly found living in the Nallamalai forest range like Guntur, Kurnool, Prakasham and Mahaboob Nagar. The Nallamalai ranges of the eastern ghats of South India are their original ancestral land of the chenchus.
Information about the plants and their medicinal value in treating various ailments encountered by the Chenchu tribes and folklore people were gathered along with the method of preparation of crude drugs and mode of administration and dosage.
Women disorders have been classified as Uterus stimulant during pregnancy, Menorrhagia, Amenorrhoea, Emmenagogue, Dismanorrhoea, Gonorrhoea, Leucorrhoea Antiperiodic, Menstural complaints, Labour pains, Abortificient, and Antiperiodic. The species identified falls in the following important families like Sapindaceae, Poaceae, Rhamnaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Ulmaceae, Rutaceae, Mimosaceae, Ochnaceae, Myrtaceae, Loranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Simarubaceae, Convolvulaceae, Verbenaceae, Celastraceae, Dioscoreaceae, Amaranthaceae, Melastomaceae, Liliaceae, Fabaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Pedaliaceae
AUTOCHTHONOUS HERBAL PRODUCTS IN THE TREATMENT OF CANCER
P.Murali Krishna, G.Siv and A Praveen
Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla. Guntur
Cancer is a general term applied to series of malignant diseases which may affect many parts of the body. The main treatments include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, etc. They caused severe side effects and provide temporary relief. So there is a continued need for new prototypes or new templates to use in treatment of cancer without causing damage to normal cells. Herbal (natural) products are providing such templates. But they require detailed research for this drug development. In more recent systematic studies for the useful plant constituents, every portion of plant and every fraction of extract is tested biologically for their anticancer activity. Herbal drugs are known to have good immune modulatory properties which promote host resistance against infections by reestablishing body equilibrium and conditioning the body tissues. This led to the introductio:t of concept of 'Prohost therapy' which aims to booster host immune function to prevent infections rather than treating at advanced stage. Some products are : Immu-21 (Ocimum sanctum, Ashwagandha, Amla, Tinosporacordifolia), Immu-25, vinca alkaloids, Epipodophyllotoxins, Taxol, Centchroman, Lycovin, semecatpus anacardium (marking nut). This paper gives a view about different herbal products developed recently to treat cancer.
ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS OF VIDISHA DISTRICT OF M.P. WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HILLY - TRACT
Brajesh Kumar Sahu
Department of Botany Govt. Subhdra Sharma Girls College, Ganj Basoda, Vidisha (M.P.)
Vidisha district lies between 23°21' and 22°22' North latitude and 77° 15.50' and 78°18' East longitude, covering an area of7433 km2 Major part of the District is inhabited by tribal communities like Sahariya, Bhil and Mena. The area is very rich in ethnomedicinal Plants.These are collected by local inhabitant for the preparation of medicines. This paper deals with the discreption of 22 Ethnomedicinal plants used by tribes.
EXPLORING HERBS FOR PEPTIC ULCER ACTIVITY
R.E. Raghu Vikram*, G. Silpa Rani, E. Maheswari, G.R. Saraswathy,
C.K. Ashok Kumar.
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Tirupathi
Peptic ulcer is a severe gastrointestional disorder that needs a well therapeutic strategy. The contributive organism Helicobacter pylori was identified as causative organism to cause serious gastro intestional mucosal bleeding. Ulceration occurs when there is a disturbance between normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance. Although there is a large number of products that have been used to treat ulcer, due to the severe side effects, drug interactions and ulcer recurrence associated with their usage, a need for safe, effective and less toxic antiulcerogenic agents arised. Many plant extracts showed a promising results towards ulcer healing. The present review highlights the ulcer protective and ulcer healing activities of Azadirachta indica, Emblica offficinalis, Solanum nigrum, Liquorice, Picrorhiza kurra, Pimpinella anisum, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Psidium guajava, Anethum graveolens, Pistachia lintiscus, Lithraea molleoides, Aspillia africana, Turnera diffusa, Taxus baccata, Nigella siteva, Curcuma longa, Kielmeyera coriacae, Treminilia avicennioides, Cisssampelos mucronata, Qualea grandiflora, Tripleurospermum disciforme, Vallesia glabra, Alhagi maurorum, Boswellia dalzielii, Sapindus mukorossi, Lippoophae rhamnoides, Indigofera truxillensis, Gigko biloba ,Peterocarpus marsupium, Eclipta alba, Psidium guajava, Foeniculum vulgare, Syngonanthus bisulcatus, Alhagi maurorum, Camellia sinensis.
HAWTHORN – GOOD FOR YOUR HEART
A.Venu, S.Rajeesha, P.V.B.S.Narayana and V.Bhavani
Samuel George Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Markapur, AP, India.
Hawthorn (Crataegus species) is a small tree or shrub and a member of the rose family considered a "cardio tonic" herb or heart tonic, the flowers and berries of the hawthorn plant were used in traditional medicine to treat irregular heart beat, high blood pressure, chest pain, hardening of the arteries, and heart failure. Hawthorn is commonly used to strengthen the heart. Hawthorn contains active compounds with antioxidant properties, however it appears that substances in particular flavonoids and algometric procyanidins are most likely to contribute to hawthorn`s beneficial effects on the heart. Flavonoids may help dilate blood vessels from damage. Beneficial properties of Hawthorn relaxing and dilating arteries, increasing the flow of blood and oxygen to and from the heart, supporting healthy circulation, Increasing endurance, Maintain healthy blood pressure and maintaining healthy blood vessels. Common uses of Hawthorn help to treat heart disease and related symptoms considered as a very good cardiac tonic used for heart muscle weakness, angina and arrhythmia. Hawthorn promotes healthy blood pressure and cholesterol levels by increasing blood vessels increasing the metabolism in the heart muscle and improving blood supply to the heart. Also used for nervousness, poor digestion, weight control, diuretic helping to rid the body of excess salt and water and thus supporting weight loss programs and has been used to treat digestive problems, nervous tension, insomnia and sore throat.
ETHNOMEDICINAL PRACTICES IN SORABA TALUK OF SHIMOGA DISTRICT, KARNATAKA
Rajakumar, N. and Shivanna M. B.
Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Applied Botany
Kuvempu University, Jnana Sahyadri, Shankaraghatta,Shimoga (Dist), Karnataka, India
E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
An ethno-medico-botanical investigation was done in selected villages of Soraba taluk of Shimoga district, Karnataka during 2006-07. The present study reveals the traditional medicinal uses of 25 plant species belonging to 22 families to treat various human ailments like asthma, diabetes, dysentery, fever, headache, menstrual disorders and skin diseases by the local herbal healers and knowledgeable elder people of Soraba taluk. The information on medicinal plants and their local names, parts used, method of drug preparation, mode of application and medicinal uses were recorded. Soraba taluk harbour rich in natural vegetation and comprises mainly dry deciduous forest supporting a variety of medicinal plants. The local people of this study area have a good traditional knowledge on the use of local wild plants. Due to various developmental programmes in the region, the traditional knowledge as well as natural vegetation are fast eroding. Recording of information on traditional methods of treatment by folk herbal healers will go a long way in finding out local available alternative health care system.
HERBAL TREATMENT FOR HEPATITIS
Siva Krishna Gupta.S, Srikanth.M,
Sri Siddhratha Pharmacy College, Nuzvid, A.P.
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver mainly caused by the organism named hepatitis virus (A, B, C, D and E). All of these viruses can cause acute liver inflammation, which often resolves on its own without treatment after a period of time. The main symptoms of hepatitis are fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain, jaundice and liver failure (cirrhosis). All these symptoms are fatal to healthy human life. There are many methods of treatment for curing hepatitis, but one of the best methods, which have fewer side effects than compare with other available methods, is by the use of natural herbal products. These products reduce the disease in two ways. Firstly there are a number of herbal remedies, which protects the liver cells from damages by poisons and viruses. The second means by which herbal remedies can be of help is in supporting the immune system efforts to fight off the virus. It emphasizes the some of the herbal products with relevant to the treatment of hepatitis such as St Mary's Thistle, Dandelion, Liquorice, Schizandra etc.
MANAGEMENT OF NON-HEALING CHRONIC ULCER BY SOME HERBAL DRUGS:
Sreenivasa Raja, K.
Mallareddy College of Pharmacy, Secundarabad
The foundation of surgical practice is to treat Vrana/wound. Dustavrana, a typical non-healing ulcer conglomerated with various sign and symptoms is a problem to the patient and surgeon. Advance technology and Medicare system are still unsatisfactory in the progress of healing and bringing down the aggravated clinical problems of an ulcer. Healing of chronic ulcer is still paradoxical. The present approaches fail to respond adequate in certain type of pathological condition of an ulcer. Besides, the management and complete treatment of a chronic unhealed ulcer is costly and require specialist approach. The chronicity of the ulcer bedridden the patient occasionally leading to any catastrophic condition, which ultimately influence working capacity of a man and hampers socio-economic status. In view of the above fact and problems it is decided to find out an alternative solution in the context of treatment of non-healing chronic ulcer. "Durvadhi ghritam" an Ayurvedic medicine described in the Bhaishajya Ratnavali (47th Chapter) was applied in the treatment of wound(Vrana) in order to know how far it is effective in the treatment of non-healing chronic ulcer. The ingredients of "Durvadhi ghritam" are durva (cynodon dactylon), kampillaka(Mallotus philippinensis Muell), daruharidra(Berberis aristata), ghrita(oil) will be collected and kept ready to prepare oil as per reference.
TRADITIONAL USE OF HERBAL MEDICINES AGAINST RHEUMATISM BY THE TRIBALS OF BARGARH DISTRICT, ORISSA (INDIA)
S. K. Sen and L. M. Behera*
Department of Botany, Panchayat College, Bargarh-768028, India
*Retired Reader in Botany, G.M. College (Autonomous), Sambalpur-768002, India.
The present paper is the outcome of an attempt made to document the traditional knowledge on 33 medicinal plants of 19 families which are used by tribals and other rural people of Bargarh district in Western part of Orissa for treatment of rheumatism. Plant species which are used in the treatment of rheumatism are Allium sativum, Anogeissus latifolia, Argyreia nervosa, Boerhaavia diffusa, Calotropis gigantea, Cassia tora, Cissus repens, Citrus medica, Clerodendrum phlomidis, Costus speciosus, Crateva magna, Cryptolepis buchananii, Ervatamia divaricata, Flemingia stricta, Gardenia latifolia, Gloriosa superba, Hygrophila schulli, Mallotus philippensis, Marsdenia tenacissima, Moringa oleifera, Ocimum sanctum, Operculina turpethum, Paederia foetida, Pergularia daemia, Premna serratifolia, Pueraria tuberosa, Semecarpus anacardium, Soyamida febrifuga, Terminalia bellirica, Tinospora cordifolia, Ventilago madraspatana, Vitex negundo, Wattakaka volubilis. An alphabetical list of these plants with their family, local name, brief description of the plant, preparation of medicine and dosage and mode of administration has been discussed in this paper.
NEPHROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF BAUHINIA PURPUREA PLANT
M. Sudhakar, N. Neelima, L.Swetha, V.Sirisha, G.Ramya and N.Archana
Mallareddy College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, A.P
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the alcoholic extract's effect of Bauhinia purpurea leaves and pods on Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Medicinal plants are an indispensable part of the traditional medicine practiced all over the world. The advantages are low costs, easy access and long safety experience. Bauhinia purpurea is a flowering plant (Family: Fabaceae). Several species of this plant are known to possess pharmacological activities. Aqueous extract of leaves have anti nociceptive, anti inflammatory, and antipyretic properties, hypoglycemic, antimycobacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activities. Anti oxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Bauhinia species have also been reported. Bauhinia purpurea leaves and unripe pods were collected from Dhullapally, Rangareddy dist., Hyd. Leaves and unripe pods were air dried, powdered to 40 mesh and subjected to soxhlet extraction with 1% Tween 80 and unripe pod extract with 5% Gum Acacia for oral administration. Nephrotoxicity was induced in Wistar rats of either sex weighing 150 – 200 gms by giving 100mg/kg/day for 9 days. The animals were maintained under conventional laboratory conditions, commercial pellet diet and water were provided ad libitum. The animals were divided into 4 groups. Each group consisting of 2 animals. Grp 1: Normal control, Grp 2: Positive control (100mg/kg/day Gentamicin), Grp 3: Leaf extract (100mg/kg/day Gentamicin + leaf extract), Grp 4: Pod extract (100mg/kg/day Gentamicin + pod extract). Effect of concurrent administration of this dose given by intraperitoneal route was determined by using blood urea nitrogen, serum uric acid and serum creatinine as indicators of kidney damage. The kidney damage is compared between positive control, leaf extract given and pod extract given rats. The results obtained from leaf and pod extracts of Bauhinia purpurea showed significant nephroprotective activity.
NATURE AS SOURCE OF DRUG COMPOUNDS
G.Vijaya Lakshmi and B. Jaya Vardhani
Dept., of Zoology Hindu College, Guntur. AP, India.
Ethnopharmacology is the scientific study and is an interdisciplinary area of research that deals with the detailed study of ingredients used in various recipes of traditional medicine and their effect on animal models. The role of natural products is being increasingly appreciated in recent years for the prevention and cure of human ailments. When studying the effectiveness of herbal medicines and other nature derived remedies, the information of the traditional uses of certain extracts of even extract combinations plays a key role. The world Health Organization estimates that as many as 80% of the world's more than six billion people rely primarily on animal and plant-based medicines. The investigation of traditional medicines has proven that of the 252 essential chemicals selected by the world Health Organization, 11.1% come from plants, and 8.7% from animals. In India nearly 15-20 percent of the Ayurvedic medicine is based on animal-derived substances. Overharvesting of medicinal species of plants and animals also contributes to species loss. The problem may be exacerbated by the growth of pills and capsules as the preferred method of ingesting medication as they are cheaper and more available than traditional. One solution for this problem is to farm medicinal animals and plants. The world society for the Protection of animals however states that one alternative to farming involves replacing medical ingredients from threatened species with manufactured chemical compounds. Natural products have been especially successful as lead structures for antibacterial therapies. Besides terrestrial ecosystems, marine environments are considered potential sources for new bioactive agents. The cone snail toxin Ziconotide, also known as Prialt, was then approved by food and Drug Administration to treat severe neuropathic pain. Several other marine-derived agents are now in clinical trails for indications such as cancer, anti-inflammatory use and pain. One of the most promising classes of these agents in pipeline are particularly as combination with other cytostatic drugs
DIVERSITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED TO TREAT RHEUMATIC PAINS IN ANDHRAPRADESH, INDIA
A. Kedarnath Reddy, and N. Savithramma*
Dept. of Botany, S.V. University, Tirupati, India.
Tribal and non-tribal inhabitants of Andhra Pradesh used nearly 65 medicinal plants for treating rheumatic pains. The tribal people have a strong faith and belief in the traditional health care system, through herbal treatment. Plant species are generally used along with other materials and plant products in different combinations to effective cure. Herbalists reported that plant ingredients are used in the form of dry powder, decoction and juice in the treatment of rheumatic pains. The knowledge of most rheumatic pain drug plants used in herbal treatment and their method of using them are confined to local healers. Some of the plants mentioned by local healers however, are extensively used nationally in the preparation of Ayurvedic medicines including those to treat rheumatic pains. Most of the plants used for treating rheumatic pains by local herbalists appear not to have been recorded hitherto. Hence an attempt has been taken to study the diversity of plants used to treat rheumatic pains.
CAESALPINIA CRISTA - A POTENTIAL ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANT
S. Arun Kumar and R. Santosh Kumar*
1. Andhra University, Visakhapatnam. *Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi, Guntur.
Caesalpina crista is a medicinal plant growing wildly throughout India and tropical countries of the world. Each and every part of the plant is claimed to possess some therapeutic property but seed kernel is the most widely used part all-over the world in various systems of medicine. Seeds are extremely bitter, commercially available in plenty at a very low cost and are widely used for a variety of diseases, especially in cases of all types of fever including malaria. The plant possesses number of therapeutic properties like antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antihelmintic, etc. The kernel of the seed is very useful and valuable in all ordinary cases of simple, continued and intermittent fevers. Decoction of the roasted kernel was used in asthma. Seeds are claimed to be purgative, antihelmintic and is used as antidote against opium, aconite, arsenic and copper poisionings. Leaves after roasting with castor oil are applied externally to inflammatory swellings. Bark of root possess number of properties like emmenagouge, febrifuge, antihelmintic etc. The root also possess diuretic and purgative properties. The stem is used in eye diseases. Flowers are used in cases of "kapha" and "vata" as expectorant. The fruits are used as astringent, aphrodiasiac, antihelmintic and cures piles. Roasted fruits are used in eye diseases and hyperacidity. As each every part of the plant has the medicinal value, Caesalpina crista is a potential ethnomedicinal plant.
ETHNO-MEDICINAL PLANT: A CASE STUDY OF CALOTROPIS IN GULBARGA DISTRICT, KARNATAKA
Bharathi. Halu and G. M. Vidyasagar
Department of PG Studies and Research in Botany Gulbarga University, Gulbarga
E mail: halu _ email@example.com
Calotropis is a tall, erect, greyish, succulent, laticiferous shrub; stem is covered with white cottony wool; leaves simple, opposite and deccusate, thick, ceraceous, sub sessile, oblong, pale green above and white tawny below; flowers are white or purple (or lilac) in lateral or terminal panicles of umbellate cyme; fruits are large inflated follicles; seeds are flat, many, attached to silky hairs. From literature it is known that the plant is used in rheumatic pain, tooth ache, septic wounds, eczema, ulcer and boils, scorpion sting, snake bite, syphilis, elephantiasis, tuberculosis, leprosy, expectorant, antihelminthic, asthma, cough, inflammation etc An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect the information from traditional healers on the use of Calotropis at Gulbarga district, which situated in Northeastern region of Karnataka. A questionnaire was prepared, informal discussions and interviews were conducted with local inhabitants during field trip and the information was recorded.
INDIAN TRADITIONAL PLANTS USED FOR WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY
Boddu Sandhya Rani, C.Monika and Santh Rani Thaakur*
Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology,S.P.M.V.V. Tirupati. India.
India has a rich tradition of plant-based knowledge on healthcare. A large number of plants/plant extracts/decoctions or pastes are equally used by tribals and folklore traditions in India for treatment of cuts, wounds, and burns. The present review thus attempts to analyze the ethnobotanical knowledge base for treatment of cuts and wounds which includes a usage of plants, methods employed by tribals and folklore practices prevailing in India. Pharmacological reports available on Indian medicinal plants employing various wound healing models and its underlying molecular mechanisms, wherever available, has also been briefly reviewed. This pharmacological validation on Indian medicinal plants is very limited and a large number of plants used in tribal and folklore with enormous potential have not been validated for their wound healing activity. This review therefore attempts to bridge the lacunae in the existing literature and offers immense scope for researchers engaged in validation of the traditional claims and development of safe and effective and globally accepted herbal drugs for cuts and wounds.
THE MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE OF HEMIDESMUS INDICUS
Sri Siddhartha Pharmacy College, Nuzvid, A.P.
Hemidesmus indicus is a climbing vine found throughout all parts of India and Srilanka belonging to family "Asclepiadaceae". This plant has long been used in India as an anti-syphilitic and presently replaced by Sarsaparilla due to its heavy demand and decreased natural population. As medicine it holds a reputed place in all systems of medicine by enjoying a status as tonic, alterative, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic and blood purifier. The active constituents of plant are coumarin, essential oil, starch, tannic acid, triterpenoid and saponins. The roots are widely used to treat a variety of infections primarily snake bite, scorpion sting, bacterial conditions (gonorrhea, thrush, dysentery), genito-urinary conditions (nephritic complaints), immune system conditions (rheumatism, arthritis, autoimmune diseases), lymphatic system conditions and skin conditions (chronic ulcers). It also exhibits antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial effects and acts against immuno toxicity.However the multi beneficial activities possessed by this plant are all in vain due to lack of its cultivation. As the maxim said " Better late than never", the authorities should pay attention on cultivation of this nature's boon and avoid it from becoming fossilized.
HARBAL FOLKLORES FOR MALE SEXUAL DISORDERS AND DEBILITES IN HARIDWAR DISTRCT OF UTTARAKHAND
B.L.Agarwal and Deepak Kumar Goyal
PG Department of Zoology, K.L.D.A.V. PG College Roorkee
Since old age man has been looking for potent drug resources of plant origin to overcome various sex related disorders and disabilities and to achieve mental satisfaction which is an important aspect of life. This study is an effort to document such notable crude knowledge lying with sexual herbalist regarding some herbal formulation utilized in male sexual disorders and debilities prevalent in the study area. Present study brought to light thirty plant species used for the treatment of sex-linked complaints of males in the study area. Most of the plant species have been tested pharmacologically to explain the mechanism of action claimed to improve the male sexual function. Bhang (Cannabis sativa Linn) is a known Central nervous system (CNS) depressant and is widely used in treatment of premature ejaculation. It is very likely that this plant slows down the transmission of nerve impulses and thereby delays ejaculation. Aswagandha (Withania somnifera ) is also a proved CNS relaxant and hence its utility in premature ejaculation is confirmed. Pharmacologically, extract of Piaz (Allium cepa Linn.) and Lehsun (Allium sativum Linn.) were found to possess testosterone like effect in tested animal. Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri Linn.) plant extract showed tranquilizing effect on albino rats. Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) showed adoptogenic antistress activity in rat and mice. Alcoholic leaf extract of Makoi (Solanum nigrum Linn.) resulted in weight gain in tested animal.
EXPLORATION OF TRADITIONAL HERBAL PLANTS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF ASTHMA IN CHITTOOR, INDIA.
Deepthi PriyaY, Jyothi.B., Chaitanya Prasad Reddy E., Munivinayaki, B
and Ashok kumar.C.K
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Sree Sainath Nagar, Tirupathi-517501
Four billion people or about 80% of the world's population uses herbal medicine today as part of their health care. Herbal medicines are used in Ayurveda, Naturopathy, and Homeopathy, traditional and Native medicines. In the last 10 years, asthma cases have risen 50% world wide. Asthma is an inflammatory disease of airways which causes attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and coughing. The present study is to explore the herbs that are available in chittoor district used to treat asthma. These includes Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum, Piper longum, Elatteria cardamom, Withania somnifera, Tamarindus indica , Aegle marmelos, Cuminum cyminum, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Tragia involucrata, Rubia cordifolia. Taking the herbs for around 100-150 days has been found to heal asthma and allergy significantly.
EXPLORATION OF ANTIFERTILITY HERBS
D. Sai Padmini, K.M. Ramya Sravani, G.R. Saraswathy, E. Maheswari
and C.K. Ashok Kumar
Dept. of Pharmacology, Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Tirupathi.
E.Mail Id: firstname.lastname@example.org
Population is one of the threatening problems of the globe. The quest for the oral contraceptive agent that can control human fertility is as old as recorded in history Although a wide variety of synthetic contraceptive agents are available, these canot be used continuously due to their severe side effects. The use of plant preparations for antifertility activity especially for prevention or interruption of pregnancy has been in practice since ancient times in India. The recent findings in this area are encouraging. Considering the side effects (cancer) of hormonal contraceptive the herbal contraceptives from indigenous plants have gained much importance. The plants presently marked as antifertlity agents are Momardica cymbalariaca, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Striga orobanchioides, Piper gunens, Prangos ferulacia, Rumex steudelii, Quassia amara, ocimum sanctum Mimosa pudica. Balanites roxburghii areca catechu Tragia involucrate, Sophora japonica, Jamu,. The present study reveals that the above mentioned herbal drugs can be used as an effective non toxic anti fertility herb.
PROTECTION OF TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE-THE INDIAN PERSPECTIVE
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, A.Rangampet, Chittoor (Dist) A.P., India
Traditional knowledge (TK) associated with the biological resources is the knowledge about a country's biodiversity; the applied uses and applications of biological resources and the prevalent practices. TK has direct correlation with the biodiversity of the country. It is an intangible component of the resource itself. TK has the potential of being transformed into commercial opportunity, providing useful leads for development of products and processes. Hence, a share of benefits must accrue to creators and holders of TK . As regards protection of knowledge, innovations and practices associated with biological resources, these do not seem to meet the conditions required for grant of patents or other Intellectual Property Rights( IPRs) e.g. copyrights, trademark, etc under the prevalent IPR regimes, i.e. novelty, inventiveness and industrial applicability. These conventional forms of IPRs are inadequate to protect indigenous knowledge essentially because they are based on protection of individual property rights whereas traditional knowledge is by and large collective. Realizing the need to ensure that the holders of TK which is not still in the public domain should be able to get the benefits arising from the use of such knowledge, an enabling provision has been made for protecting the TK in the Biodiversity Bill 2000.Section 36(iv) provides for protection of knowledge of local people relating to biodiversity through measures such as registration of such knowledge, and development of a sui generis system. For ensuring equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of biological resources and associated knowledge, Section 19 and 21 stipulate prior approval of the National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) before their access. Documentation of knowledge of the local people on the status, uses and management of biological resources constitutes of the People's Biodiversity Registers (PBRs).PBR envisages the creation of decentralized country-wide database on status of biological resources.
N.S.R.Krishna Rao* and A.Lalithamba.**
Centre for Conservation of Biodiversity and Medicinal plants, Kavali, AP.
Adaptogens are natural herbs/herbal products which have been referred to as restoratives, rasayanas, Qi tonics or rejuvenating herbs. They are in effect antioxidants and are anti- stress agents. Adaptogens are herbs for strength, stamina and stress relief and are nicknamed as the "three S herbs". They normalize the hypothalamic- pituitary- adrenal axis (HPA axis) and constitute a new group of natural, homeostatic metabolic regulators. They tend to normalize the body system either by toning down the activity of hyperfunctioning systems or by enhancing the activity of hypofunctioning systems. Most of the established adaptogenic herbs have been successfully employed in Ayurveda, Tradtional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Kampo and other tradiotional Asian medicines. Ginseng, Aswagandha, Holy Basil, Guduchi, Licorice and a host of other adaptogens are widely employed. Adaptogens are reported to possess active principles such as triterpenes, polypropanes, oxylipins and polysaccharides. They act as anti -stress agents by influencing the adrenal glands in the synthesis of hormones. Adaptogens relieve pain associated with arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.Important adaptogenic herbs employed in TCM, Ayurveda, their mode of action and the active ingradients involved are reviewed briefly.
TURMERIC- "MULTI-ANTI" SPICE SINCE AGES
G. Varalakshmi, S. Satish
Sri Siddhartha Pharmacy College, Nuzvid, A.P.
A "Spice is an aromatic substance that adds a flavor"; a thought familiar in the people. Beyond the status of this thought, one can find the other phase of spice. In fact the exact chemical constituents present in spice can affect many aspects of our physiology beyond our taste buds. It is not only piquant to our dish but also to our health wish. Turmeric is the spice, used since ancient times as "Multi-Anti" spice, particularly in the traditional medical philosophy known as Ayurveda, as it is used in dethroning several detriments. The turmeric plant (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous, herbaceous perennial belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. The active ingredient of turmeric is curcumin; the primary pharmacological agent is more potent as an antioxidant and contains natural cyclooxygenase inhibitors responsible for anti-inflammatory action. Turmeric also extended its activity as antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antihepatotoxic, antitumoral, antifertile, anti-insect, antivenom, antimutagenic and also effective in treating neurodegenarative disorders (Alzheimer's disease). In this way the scope of its application spread like an endless ocean. It is fascinating that one little herb can strong arm to many health problems. That's the ever-amazing power of food pharmacy. Yet there is much to be discovered, however it has very few adverse effects, which can be seen with more combinations. Even though its importance has spread over many areas, still it's utility is remained as an immature. This is due to the delayed recognition of hidden reality of turmeric, a hidden niche. It is called as spice of life like that of music of Mozart, playing with children or chocolate etc., Add, a bit of spice to your life.
HERBAL TREATMENT OF CANCER
V. Lavanya, R. Rama Devi.
Sri Siddhartha Pharmacy College, Nuzvid, A.P
Cancer is a fatal disease caused due to abnormal and uncontrolled division of body cells. This may be caused by mutations or exposure to U.V.rays or tobacco or alcohol consumption. Cancer treatments available at present are surgery, radiation and cancer chemotherapeutic agents. All these can provide temporary relief of symptoms, the prolongation of life and occasional cures. A successful anti cancer drug should kill all cancer cells without causing damage to normal cells. This ideal is difficult or perhaps impossible to attain with synthetic drugs and chemotherapeutic agents. Recent studies of tumor inhibiting compounds of plant origin have yielded an impressive array of novel structures of tumor inhibiting substances or compounds. Advanced clinical trials are only now establishing that compounds identified in NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE screening program are sufficiently promising to provide us new anticancer drugs like taxol, camptothecin etc. The herbs are considered to be BRM'S (biological response modifiers) by our scientists, which reduce the side effects of cancer treatments, at the same time increasing their effectiveness. Hence HERBS are SAFE NATURAL RESOURCES for treatment of cancer
HERBAL CONTRACEPTIVE POPULAR TRIBALS OF JHARKHAND
P.K. Mishra and S.B. Choudhary,
Dept. of Botany, Vinoba Bhave University,Hazaribagh – 825 301, Jharkhand
E-mail – email@example.com
Population explosion is serious problem and our country is facing it more serious. Although various oral contraceptive synthetic nature ate popular but their side effects are widely talked about and still it is avoided by majority of population. Tribal of Jharkhand on the other hand have been using herbal contraceptive from time immemorial. The socio cultural frame work of tribal has promoted traditional system of family planning and herbal contraceptive had played a major role in this direction. Decoction of Punica granatum is being utilized by Oraon Community as antifertility agent. Bulb and root of Dioscorea floribunda are equally popular to prevent pregnancy. Similatly 'Ho' tribe of this state use to make a mixture of powdered Vicoa indica and pepper seed during and take it during menstrual cycle to prevent pregnancy. Decoction of root and seeds of Daucus carota is comman prescription for preventing unwanted conception among Munda tribes of Jharkhand. Raw rhizome of Balanites agyptiaca is also effective as oral contraceptive. Similarly some of the plants and their parts and used by tribal for safe termination of unwanted pregnancy. Roots of Ruallia suffructicosa and Alangium lamaruii is well known for this purpose. The paper discusses some highly promising herbal agent for family planning used by tribal of Jharkhand.
HERBAL DRUGS FOR TREATMENT OF HYPERLIPIDIMIA
Vamsee Krishna S., Lavanya Y., Rahul Nair, Arun Rasheed and Ashok Kumar C.K.
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, A.Rangampet, Tirupathi,
Andhra Pradesh, India
This study was conducted to document herbal medicines (HMs) used in the treatment of hyperlipdimia A number of plant preparations such as Garlic, Ashwhagandha, Ginkogo biloba, Eclipto prostrate, Cassi tora, Semmen cassiae, Termenalia chebula, Tinospora cardifolia, Artichoke, Terenalia arjuna, have been reported to have hypolipidimic Activities. Since the chemicals in herbs are nonspecific and unconcentrated, there are generally fewer side effects from herbs than manufactured drugs. The mechanisam involve of lipid lowering can be attributed due to decreasing in the total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides by inhibiting the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and accelerating its catabolism to the bile acids. Present study aims to compile complete information regarding the plants reported to have such activity.
ETHANOL EXTRACT OF COMMIPHORA MUKUL PREVENTS FRUCTOSE-INDUCED METABOLIC CHANGES IN RATS
B. Ramesha , R. Karunab, K. Ramesh Babua D. Saralakumarib,*
aDept. of Biochemistry, S.V.University, Tirupati, A.P, India
bDept of Biochemistry, S.K.University, Anantapur-515 003, A. P, India
The study was aimed to examine if oral administration of the ethanol extract of Commiphora mukul (Burseraceae family). Protect against the development of Insulin resistance in fructose fed rats. Male Wister rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each: Normal (N), Normal treated (NT), and Fructose untreated rats (FUN) and Fructose fed treated rats (FT). C. mukul ethanol extract (CMEEt) was administered at 200mg/Kg body weight /day to NT and FT rats by garage for 60 days. During experimental period body weights, plasma glucose, insulin and plasma lipid profile were measured at an interval of 15 days. At the end of experimental days we assessed the insulin sensitivity index in terms of HOMA. The non-toxic nature of CMEEt was revealed by untreated body weight, plasma glucose and insulin. A significant gain in body weight, hyperglycemia, hyperinslinemia, triglyceredemia and insulin resistance were absorbed in FUN and FT rats when compared to N rats. But FT rats showed a significant (P≤0.05) decreased plasma glucose, insulin and lipid profile when compared to FUN rats. In NT rats showed hypolipidmic activity when compared N rats. Our result suggest that oral administration of CMEEt could delay the development of insulin resistance in rats, CMEEt act as hypolipidimic agent and may used as an adjuvant therapy for treating diabetic patients with insulin resistance.
PLANTS USED BY ABORIGINALS IN LOWERING BLOOD
N.Ekambaram, V.K.Bhagawan and M.Sudhakar.
Department of Botany,S.V. Arts college, Tirupati, India.
Diabetes mellitus a disease, which is common in all ages of people, is not cured if once attacked. It can be controlled by taking care by the diabetic patient only by maintaining glucose levels in blood. Though diabetic if maintained ideal body weight, identifying and treating high blood pressure and avoidance of other risk factors like smoking and fat levels in blood, sedentary life styles, etc. Besides these, it was suggested that some of the plants which have more fiber content and bitter taste are preferable for maintaining diabetes without any abnormalities. An attempt has been made to know the effect of these plants in control of diabetes as said by the aboriginals who prefer plants for maintainence of blood sugar levels.
ANTIOVULATORY ACTIVITY OF AN ETHNOPLANT BRIDELIA CRENULATA -A POTENTIAL HERBAL CONTRACEPTIVE
Rachana Haldankar, Pratima Tatke and S. Y. Gabhe
C. U. Shah College of Pharmacy, SNDT Women's University,
Juhu Campus, Santacruz West, Mumbai
India is one of the world's twelve leading biodiversity centers having over 45,000 different plant species. Out of these plant species, many have a high beneficial value and are used for several years by our ancestor's as effective home remedies or remedies suggested by the Vaidya's or Hakim's. Such medicinal plants are called as ethnoplants. But very few of these ethnoplants have been studied systematically. Thus the present study is focused on examining one such Ethnoplant, Bridelia crenulata. Liquor of stem bark of Bridelia crenulata is known to be used by the inhabitants of Orissa to prevent pregnancy. The study aims at investigating the antiovulatory activity of dried bark of Bridelia crenulata. The powdered,dried bark was extracted with petroleum ether and individually with water. The extracts were evaluated for antiovulatory activity in female albino mice. These extracts were administered orally for 30 days. The vaginal smears were examined daily for the number and duration of estrus cycle and diestrus cycles. The estrus phase was reduced while the diestrus phase was persistent and prolonged in all animals treated with petroleum ether extract at two different dose levels, indicating significant antiovulatory activity. Petroleum ether extract of stem bark of Bridelia crenulata showed excellent antiovulatory activity in female albino mice, confirming the traditional claim. Considering this available information about contraceptive efficacy, the bark of Bridelia crenulata should be further studied for human use as a potential safe contraceptive of herbal origin.
ADANSONIA DIGITATA L: AN AFRICAN TREE WITH INDIAN CULTURAL LINKAGES AND POTENTIAL INNOVATIVE
A. S. Reddy and Bhargav Brahmbhat
Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat
Adansonia digitata L., (African Baobab or Monkey Bread Tree), the native of Tropical Africa, is said to be introduced to Indian subcontinent centuries ago. Though this Bombacaceae tree is found today in many parts of India and known by several Indian names, it could not so far establish its population to a significant size. However, it attained veneration among different groups of ethnic and modern people in India. In spite of the fact that some of these uses appear to be promising, they have not become popular due to several reasons; hence need to be screened and be popularised. A thorough ethnobotanical investigation was carried out in different parts of Gujarat for recording the distribution its local uses of this tree. Noting the confirmed repetitive local uses, various medicinal and neutraceutical properties were analysed in the laboratory. Bark extract showed glucose reducing properties in alloxen induced experimental diabetic rats. It also showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus. The leaves proved to contain much higher levels of calcium as compared to many local species known to be rich source of calcium. As the natural regeneration of this tree in India is almost nil, saplings are not available for plantations; experiments were conducted by employing various pre-sowing treatments and could achieve about 85% seed germination rate. Hundreds of saplings were raised and supplied to the local nursery of Gujarat Forest Department for wide plantation and distribution. Highlighting various cultural linkages attached in India with the African Baobab, its local uses and the medicinal as well as neutraceutical properties, the presentation will make a plea for inclusion of this tree in social forestry programmes.
KHASI TRADITIONAL HERBAL HEALING
John's Herbal Nursing Home, P.O. Thangsning, Shillong-793 015, Meghalaya.
John Wessly Kharduit is a local traditional herbal practitioner who has been practicing since 1983. He hails from Thangsning, a village located about 20 Km from the capital city of Shillong, Meghalaya. He treats many diseases like paralysis, rheumatism, sclerosis, cerebral palsy, diabetes, stroke, blood pressure, burnt injury ,bone fractures, cancer etc. Besides being a healer well known within and outside the State, he has also frequently treated patients outside the country which includes patients from Slovenia, Hong Kong, UK, Germany, etc. Many students, scientists and VIPs have visited his nursing home at Thangsning where he has set up a herbal manufacturing unit. Noteworthy are his effort to promote conservation of medicinal plants and has lead this effort by cultivating medicinal plants in his own land. He has attended many workshops and seminars within the State and has delivered many lectures on the subject of local traditional healings. He has attracted the attention of the public and media on many occasions featuring in the Week magazine in 2002, India Today in 1999 and TV broadcasts. Some of his patients are high profile dignitaries. He has also visited the Rashtrapati Bhavan on the invitation of the president of India, His Excellency, Dr. A.P.J. Kalam in 2003.
HERBAL PRODUCTS FOR LIVER DISEASES:
A THERAPEUTIC CHALLENGE FOR THE NEW MILLENNIUM
T.Seshadri, P.Kumar Giri Reddy,
IV B.Pharm, Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Tirupathi-517 502.
Use of herbal drugs in the treatment of liver diseases has a long tradition, especially in Eastern medicine. Standardization has been a problem, and randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials to support efficacy are lacking. Some herbal extracts promoted for gastrointestinal or biliary disorders contain potent hepatotoxic alkaloids and are harmful. However, some of these extracts have yielded molecules, often related to flavonoids, with proven antioxidative, antifibrotic, antiviral, or anticarcinogenic properties, including glycyrrhizin, phyllanthin, silibinin, picroside, and baicalein, which derive from liquorice root, Phyllanthus amarus, milk thistle, Picrorhiza kurroa, and sho-saiko-to, respectively, that can serve as primary compounds for the development of specific hepatotropic drugs.
HERBAL COSMETICS, QUALITY CONTROL PARAMETERS AND REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS
V. Bharath Kumar*, M.Hima Bindu, M. Purushothaman, S. Mohana Lakshmi
and Ashok Kumar C. K.
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy,A.Rangampet, Chandragiri.AP
Email – firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of the present study is to enumerate the safety and effectiveness of herbal cosmetics over chemical substances based cosmetics. The review also documents the different herbals and their constituents that are useful for thousands of years for natural care and beautification purposes. Advantages of using natural colorants and dyes over the synthetic ones were also discussed in details which are the essential and vital components of herbal cosmetics. While searching the information of various herbal cosmetics and personal care products, the skin care segment is leading in this field and it accounts for Rs. 450 crores in global market. Many Indian Pharmaceuticals companies like Dabur, Cadila have expanded their product range by starting production of herbal cosmetics. Keeping in view the different range of herbal cosmetics and extent of usage by Indian consumers, the present study addresses the products in use, describes various ingredients, processes employed, quality control parameters and regulatory requirements.
OPUNTIA PRODUCTS-THE NEW EMERGING NEUTRACEUTICALS
*Chenna kesava Reddy. S and**Dr. Sucharitha. K.V
Dept. of Home Science,S.V.University, Tirupati (A.P), India.
E-mail: chennasra (ti;yahoo.com)
Opuntia is a very large genus of cacti, native from Canada to SouthAmerica, but now found also in other dry, desert terrains through out the world. Opuntias are also called "prickly pears", it contains essential amino acids, high in B-vitamins and minerals such as calcium, magnesium and iron. It also contains lots of insoluble fibers, which aids in digestion and keeps you regular. Currently in medical research, opuntia was used to stabilize blood sugars in type II diabetics. It is also used in the fight against high cholesterol and has an LDL-lowering effect. Prickly pear fruit is now plentiful, the colorful fruits (red or purple) really add beauty to the ranch land scape. The fruits can be eaten fresh or made into products. In the present study products were prepared using the fruits of opuntia as a major ingredient. Jams, jellies and squashes were developed with the fruits and sensory attributes were evaluated. To add value to products the opuntia pulp was blended with other nutritional low cost fruits and products were developed and tested for sensory evaluation. The results showed a significant acceptance of the products. Hence opuntia has tremendous commercial potential for foods, medicines and cosmetics. The prickly pear cactus has come a long way from being considered a pest.
ROLE OF HERBAL MEDICINE IN HEALTH CARE
G. Vidya Sagar, CH. V. Suresh
Sri Siddhartha Pharmacy College, Nuzvid, A.P., India
Four technologies namely Herbal Technology, Information Technology, Pharmaceutical Technology and Biotechnology are going to be the most powerful elements that are going to be most crucial for the prosperity and welfare of the people. Herbal technology is a general term for all those Technological interventions to make value additions and manufacturing of plant-based products. Important segments include Herbal drugs/ Phytopharmaceuticals/ Nutraceuticals/ Herbal cosmetics/Comaceuticals/Medicinal foods. The traditional medicine more particularly the plant-based drugs continue to playa major role in human health care even in 21 st century.
End of the 20th century began to witness a revival of interest in traditional medicine in the world over. This was mainly due to the increasing evidence on the harmful side effects of many modern drugs. The global market of herbal drugs is growing by 10-15% Per year. Market for nutraceuticals for health risks like Blood pressure, stress, stomach disorders, and obesity are the fastest growing sectors in herbal drugs. Many of the herbal drugs although have long history of use lack documented evidence/record on safety and efficacy. Therefore there is an immediate need to get the traditional medicines evaluated in the light of the modern scientific knowledge and technology.
ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF LEAF OF OXYSTELMA
D. Babu Ananth1 C. Uma and Maheswara Reddy2
1 Dept of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Maharaji College of Pharmacy, Chennai
2 Dept of Pharmacology, Sri Ramachandra College of Pharmacy, Chennai
Oxystelma esculentum (Asclepiadaceae), is a perennial twining herb. It is found throughout the plains and lower hills of India. The whole plant is used in psoriasis, diuretic, laxative, leucoderma, anthelmintic, bronchitis, astringent and leukemia. The literature survey indicates that so far no work have been done on leaves of Oxystelma esculentum. The present study aims at evaluation of the acute toxicity study and antipyretic activity of leaves of Oxystelma esculentum. The air dried leaves are extracted by soxhlet extraction method. The Short term toxicity study indicates the safety internal use of petroleum ether extract of Oxystrlma esculentum. The extract was evaluated for Antipyretic activity using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats. The petroleum extract (525mg/kg) showed almost equipotent Antipyretic activity when compared to standard (Paracetamol 100mg/kg). All the values are expressed as ±SEM and analysed using Two way–Anova(Dunnett'stest)
MODULATION OF NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY BY PUTRESCINE IN ROOT, SHOOT AND LEAVES OF BARLEY
Indreshu K. Gautam, Ritika Mishra, Savita Gangwar and Sanjay K. Garg.
Department Of Plant Science, MJP. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly (UP.)
Different concentration of putrescine (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10 mm) were used to their study on nitrate reductase activity in the root, shoot and leaves of 8 days old barley seedlings. The seedlings were incubated for 24 hr. In putrescine solutions of varying conc.(0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10 mm) and assayed for in vivo and in vitro nr activity. Nr activity was considerably increased from 0.01mm to 1.0mm conc. The nr activity was inhibited by the dose of higher concentration of putrescine (10.0 mm). We found that in leaves, nr activity increased than root and shoot of barley seedlings and when compared root and shoot then we found that in shoot nr activity increased than root in vivo and in vitro.
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FRACTIONIZED EXTRACTS OF TYLOPHORA INDICA (BURM.F) MERRILL WILD ON MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT (MDR) MICROBES
N. Raaman, M. Shanmuga Sundaram, K. Kumaresan and L. Hariprasath
Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai.
Tylaphora indica, belonging to Asclepadiaceae has medicinal properties and has a use in the traditional medicine. In the present study, the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the aerial part of wild Tylophora indica was determined using different extracts viz. Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate and Methanol extracts. Four MDR bacterial species and one dermatophytic pathogen were used for the screening. Micro-broth dilution method (for MIC and MBC determination) and Well diffusion method were adopted for the antibacterial activity. The Agar dilution method was adopted for antifungal assay respectively. The bacterial and fungal pathogens were inoculated on Mueller Hinton broth /Agar medium. The fractionized extracts were used doubling dilution 1 mg / mL concentration for MIC/MBC determination. In well diffusion method, different concentrations ranging from 50 to 300µL were added to the agar wells. After 24 hours incubation, the zone of inhibition was measured and the inhibition percentage was determined. For dermatophytes, concentrations ranging from 100 to 800µg per plate were used. After 21 days incubation the mycelial growth were measured and a percentage of inhibition calculated. The results showed that the chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of the wild plants exhibited good antibacterial activity. The chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts had no antifungal activity whereas methanolic extract showed notable activity against fungi. The petroleum ether extract was showed poor antimicrobial activity.
A PILOT STUDY FOR IMPROVEMENT OF BIOMASS YIELD AND STEVIOSIDE (ACTIVE CONSTITUENT) CONTENT IN MEDICINAL PLANT STEVIA REBAUDIANA BY APPLIED MICRO AND CHEMICAL NUTRIENT
Kuntal Das1*, Raman Dang2 and T.N Shivananda3
*1St. John's Pharmacy College, R.P.C. Layout, Vijayanagar, Bangalore-40, India.
2Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Hosur Main Road, Bangalore- 27, India.
3IIHR, Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Division, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore-80.
A green house experiment was conducted at Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR, Bangalore), in basic soil (pH 8.80) to study the micronutrient especially zinc application in presence and absence of phosphorus on the plant height, biomass yield and stevioside content of Stevia plant. In total of 60 days study, the plant height and fresh biomass yield have been increased significantly at 60 days with the application of zinc and phosphorus in different combinations, being highest (36 cm of plant height and 23.34 g of fresh biomass respectively) due to maximum content of zinc in plants (4.52 mg/kg) and in soil (1.36 mg/kg) where zinc was applied in both soil (10 kg zinc sulphate /ha) and foliar spray (0.2 % zinc sulphate) without application of phosphorus. The results further suggest the amount of stevioside was increased up to 16.59% where only zinc was applied in absence of phosphorus. HPTLC study reveals the confirmation. Finally it concluded that there was some antagonistic effect between zinc and phosphorus and hence application of zinc in soil and foliar in absence of phosphorus gave positive improved results for Stevia plant cultivation.
GINKGO IN THE TREATMENT OF CNS DISORDERS
Sri Siddhartha Pharmacy College, Nuzvid, A.P.
Now a day's herbs are playing a major role in curing some of the complicated diseases. When it comes to the CNS disorders, ginkgo leaf extracts play an important role. Ginkgo Biloba is of Chinese origin; it is widely touted as a "brain herb". It is a living fossil. Ginkgo is well recognized for its positive effect on brain functioning - enhancing memory, mental alertness, and reducing mental fatigue and lack of energy. Ginkgo Biloba improves the function of brain by preventing and treating conditions of cerebral vascular deficiencies, where there's decreased flow of blood to the brain and it is also widely used in the treatment of dementia. Ginkgo increases metabolism efficiency, regulates neurotransmitters, and boosts oxygen levels in the brain, which uses 20% of the body's oxygen, benefits of enhanced circulation in the brain include improved short and long-term memory, increased reaction time and improved mental clarity. The extract of the Ginkgo leaves contains flavonoid glycosides and terpenoids (ginkgolides, bilobalides) and has been used pharmaceutically. It has many alleged nootropic properties, and is mainly used as memory and concentration enhancer. It protects against oxidative cell damage from free radicals. Though it has some side effects, it is well administered for treating Alzheimer's, schizophrenia and dementia. Ginkgo is commonly added to nutrition bars, soft drinks, and fruit smoothies to boost memory and enhance cognitive performance.
EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF
M Sudhakar, V Uma rani, R Jushitha, P Naga Divya, P Neha and K Lavanya.
Malla Reddy College Of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, A.P.
Lagenaria siceraria belonging to Cucurbitaceae family is a vigorous, annual, running or climbing vine with lush appearance and it is commonly known as bottle gourd. It is medicinally used as Antibiotic, Antidote, Diuretic, Emetic, Febrifuge Lithontripic, Odontalgic, Poultice, Purgative, Vermifuge. The pulp around the seed is purgative. A poultice of the crushed leaves has been applied to the head to treat headaches. The flowers are an antidote to poison. The stem bark and the rind of the fruit are diuretic.The fruit is antilithic, diuretic, emetic and refrigerant. The seed is vermifuge. A poultice of the boiled seeds has been used in the treatment of boils. Taken with Achyranthes spp the seed is used to treat aching teeth and gums, boils etc. Extracts of the plant have shown antibiotic activity. Yet, Lagenaria Siceraria is not scientifically validated for its hepatoprotective activity. The present study was carried out in wistar rats to explore the effect of ethanol extract and dried fresh juice extract of Lagenaria siceraria on biochemical changes associated with carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage. Fruits of Lagenaria siceraria were collected from the surrounding areas of Hyderabad. First batch was extracted with alcohol (99% v/v),where in the fruit pulp of Lagenaria siceraria was shade dried and pulverized to coarse powder using conventional grinder and was extracted with (99% v/v) ethanol in Soxhlet extractor, concentrated and dried at temperature not exceeding 40 degrees. Dried fresh juice extract of Lagenaria Siceraria was prepared and was filtered, concentrated and dried at temperature not exceeding 40 degrees. Extracts were screened for hepatoprotective activity using 30 adult, healthy wistar rats of either sex weighing between 150-250g housed under standard conditions and fed with standard rodent diet with water ad libitum. The experimental animals were divided in five groups of six rats each. The animals in Group-I served as control. The Group-II, III, IV animals received 0.7ml/kg/day dose of carbon tetrachloride intraperitoneally on first and fourth day. The Group-III and IV animals received 300mg/kg/day oral dose of ethanol extract and dried fresh juice extract of Lagenaria Siceraria respectively. Duration of treatment has been carried out for seven days. All the animals were sacrificed on the eighth day. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and subjected to centrifugation. Clear Serum was separated and used for the estimation of Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Serum Glutamate Oxalate Transaminase (SGOT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Total Bilirubin(TB) and Total Protein(TP). The results obtained from the extracts prepared showed significant hepatoprotective activity.
ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF HOLOSTEMMA ADA-KODIEN A RARE MEDICINAL PLANT
Mallikarjuna .B*, Ushanagalakshmi R* and Rama Gopal, G.**
Department of Botany, S.V. University, Tirupati.
Email : email@example.com
Holostemma ada-kodien is an important medicinal plant belonging to the family Asclepidaceae. The plant is used for maintaining youth vigor, strength and vitality. The root tubers of the plant are used as a tonic, ophthalmic, alternant and the terpenoid sugars present are responsible for these medicinal properties. Hexane, ethyl acetate and methonolic extracts (5 µg - 100 µg) of the root tubers were screen for their anti bacterial activity with gram+ve, gram –ve strains of ATCC. Hexane and Ethyl acetate showed maximum inhibition of the growth of gram +ve bacteria, followed by methonolic extract. Methonolic extract showed moderate activity with pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram –ve). Ethyl acetate extract showed maximum inhibition zone with Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus lichiniformis and Staphylococus aureus compared to Hexane extract. Anti oxidant activity of Hexane and Ethyl acetate extracts was also studied employing DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Butylated hydroxyl toulene, ascarbic acid were used as synthetic reference. Absobance was read at 517nm. Lower absorbance of the reaction mixture indicates higher free radicals scavenging activity. SC50 (µg/mL), the anti oxidant concentration to achieve 50% radical scavenging was used to evaluate radical scavenging activity of the samples. Ethyl acetate extract showed higher DPPH* radical scavenging activity (89% at 500 µg ) than Hexane extract (59% at 500 µg)
SCREENING AND DEVELOPMENT OF ECO FRIENDLY MOSQUITO REPELLANT AND REPELLECY ACTIVITY OF POTENCIAL MEDICINAL PLANT VOLATILE OIL AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI L.
Department of Biotechnology Sri Krishnadevaraya University Anantapur-515 003 A.P. firstname.lastname@example.org
The quest for the perfect repellent is still a posing problem to the scientist, as it has to fulfill the desired standards. The natural products have been a rich source of medicines since they provide a host of many bioactive compounds with a wide range of applications. Aeddes aegypti which transmits Arbo viruses responsible for Yellow fever, Dengue and other Viral fever. Vector control can be achieved by using insecticidal larvicidal organophosphorates or synthetic compounds like N,N-diethyl,1-3-methyl benzamide (DEET).The toxicity of these chemical has side effects. More over the constant use of these chemicals will lead to gain the resistance to these mosquito. GC-MS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Studies also conduced to identifY suitable bio active compound in selected medicinal plants. The present paper deals with screening, volatility and mosquito repellency activity of some medicinal plants.
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SYZYGIUM ALTERNIFOLIUM ON SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA
M. Nagalakshmi Devamma, T. Vijaya and C. Nirmala*
Depat. of Botany, S.V.University, Tirupati-2, A.P., India.
*Dept. of Biotechnology, S.V.University, Tirupati-2, A.P., India.
Syzigium alternifolium Walp. is a deciduous endemic plant occurring in Tirumala region, A.P. which is enriched with a large variety of plants. It belongs to the family Myrtaceae. It is locally known as mogi/adivineredu. The Tribal people living in this hill region used the leaf paste to cure skin prickles and itching in summer season. This plant has many medicinal properties like antidiabetes, to control giddiness in pregnant women and sputum during heavy cough. In the present study it was found that Syzigium alternifolium has an excellent antimicrobial activity. The pathogenic bacteria like E.coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Providencia rettgeri were found inhibited in presence of the extracts of Syzigium alternifolium obtained using different organic solvents viz., ethanol, chloroform and methanol. Even the aqueous extract of the plant was found antimicrobial activity. Therefore the future studies should be aimed to exploit this plant to be used as one of the best medicinal plant in controlling pathogenic bacteria.
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-LIPIDPEROXIDATION ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF VITEX PUBESCENS
B.Nageswaraiah* M.Venkateswarlu, D. Ranganayakulu,
Dept.of Biochemistry,Pharmacy-pharmacology,S.V. University, Tirupati, India.
Inflammation is the major immunological response observed in many pathological conditions. The alcoholic extract of vitex pubescens at the dose 200mg/kg was tested for anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. The extract produced dose dependent and significant inhibition of Carragenan induced paw oedema. Alcoholic extract of vitex pubescens also showed anti-lipid peroxidation activity. So the Extract inhibits predominantly the peripheral pain mechanism.The presence of flavonoids in the alcoholic extract may be contributory to it's anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. We are using adult wister albino rats of either sex weighing between 200-225gr for the study. The test sample was administered orally one hour before injection of carragenan (0.1ml of 1%w/v solution) in normal saline in to the subplanter region of left hand paw of each rat. The standard group receives diclofenac (10mg/kg). Carragenan 0.1ml of 1%w/v solution produced significant paw oedema, and the alcoholic extract in doses of 200mg/kg per oral produced dose dependent inhibition of paw oedema. Alcoholic extract of vitex pubescens could counteract the lipid peroxidative state developed during inflammatory injury. The alcoholic extract of vitex pubescens shows inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF GINGER IN STZ-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
Shanmugam.K.R, Ramakrishna. Ch. Narasimhulu. G, Lavanya. T,
Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara Univeristy, Tirupati
The plants with antidiabetic activities provide useful sources for the development of drugs in the treatment if diabetes. Medicinal plants with hypoglycemic activity were used for many centuries and some times as regular constituents of the diet, it is assumed that they do not have many side effects. There are more than 400 medicinal plants in the world used to treat diabetes. In the present study the antidiabetic effect of ginger ethanolic extract (Zingiber officinale Rosco) was investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of ginger ethanolic extract (200mg/lg body weight) for 30 days on the level of blood glucose and body weight changes in normal and streptozoticin-induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Treatment of ginger ethanolic extract alleviated body weight loss in diabetic rats. Administration of ginger extract significantly decreased blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. We conclude that ginger would be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on diabetes mellitus.
ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PROPOLIS
FROM GUJARAT ZONE
Nilesh Kumar*, Mueen Ahmad KK., Ahmad Husain and Rokeya Sultana
Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Hosur Road, Bangalore.
Propolis, a natural product produced from the honeybee, has been used for thousands of years in folk medicine for several purposes. In this work, we have investigated the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of a propolis collected from west zone of India i.e. Gujarat. The antimicrobial activity was done by agar diffusion method against S. aureus, B. subtalis, P. aerogenosa, E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger. Ethanolic extracts of porpolis sample showed high antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (B. subtalis) but least activity against Gram-negative bacteria (P. aerogenosa and E. coli). The yeast Candida albicans showed the moderate zone of inhibition where as A. niger did not show any activity at all. Pet. Ether and chloroform extracts did not show any activity. The maximum zone of inhibition of the ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) was found against the B. subtalis at the conc. 200mg/ml where as the least was in the 40% methanolic extracts. The free radical scavenging effect of propolis as well as of vitamin C in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical system was determined. The free radical scavenging activity of EEP was 70.98% and 73.52% respectively in the concentration range of 100 mcg at the difference of 30 min and 1hr respectively. The result of free radical scavenging effect of vitamin C was 94.7% at 100 mcg and 93.4% at 10 mcg. The methanolic extracts showed the least free radical scavenging when compared to the 40% methanolic and ethanolic extract of the propolis.
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHEMICAL MARKER FROM GREEN TEA AND BLACK CATECHU.
Nilofar Momin, Supriya Jirge and Pratima Tatke
SNDT Women's University, Juhu Campus, Santacruz (West), Mumbai.
Recently, there has been an increase in the use of herbal drugs for healthcare, so it is absolutely essential to provide scientifically proven and evidence based herbal formulations for global acceptance. Marker based standardization is essential for the quality control of herbal formulations. A marker compound is a chemically defined constituent in the herbs with or without therapeutic activity, which is of interest for assessing the quality. Marker serves as standard for referencing test material. Isolation of marker compound in pure form is a great challenge faced by Phytochemists. Catechin is used as marker for standardization of formulations containing Green tea, Saraca indica, Acacia nilotica,, other Acacia spp etc. The reported methods involve use of HPLC, Column chromatography for isolation of Catechin. The objective of the present study is to develop a simple, cost effective method for isolation of Catechin from medicinal plants such as Green tea, black catechu and its characterization. Isolation of Catechin has been undertaken from plants such as Green tea, Black Catechu by various methods such as column chromatography, Preparative TLC. Isolated catechin was purified by crystallization and characterized by chemical and spectral studies. The quality and % yield of Catechin obtained was compared. Highest yield of Catechin was obtained from Black catechu bye preparative TLC method. TLC profile and HPTLC fingerprint have been developed and compared with standard. The structure of isolated Catechin was confirmed by NMR and Mass analysis. A simple, cost-effective method has been developed for isolation of Catechin from black catechu. This method will be useful for Ayurvedic manufacturers for standardization of formulations containing Green tea, Saraca indica, Acacia nilotica, black catechu etc.
STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF MICROBIAL INOCULANTS ON THE GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA WALL.EX NEES AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT
C. Nirmala*, T. Vijaya and M. Nagalakshmi Devamma
Dept. of Biotechnology, S.V. University, Tirupati
and Dept. of Botany, S.V. University, Tirupati
Andrographis paniculata is a well known and important medicinal plant of Ayurveda. A. Paniculata is traditionally known as Kalmegh. The plant belongs to family Acanthaceae and the whole plant is widely used in Ayurveda and Homeopathic system of medicines. It is a bitter annual herb. The plant is bitter, acrid, cooling, laxative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, anthelminthic, digestive and stomachic. It is useful in hyperdipsia, burning sensation, wounds, ulcers, chronic fever, malaria, inflammations, intestinal worms, dyspepsia, colic, diarrhaea, dysentery and haemorrhoids. The most significant pharmacological activities are antiallergic and anti HIV effect. It also improves non-specific immune response. Biofertilizers i.e. Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae and vermicompost are known to enhance the biomass and accumulation of various elements in the plants. In turn these bio-organic fertilizers are known to enrich the soil fertility. The present work is aimed to study the affect of different biofertilizers on A.paniculata in nursery conditions. Four different treatments viz., T1,T2,T3 andT4 were established to meet the objective of the study. The fresh and dry biomass and the chlorophyll, protein and nucleic acid content of plants and spore count from soil were significantly high in VAM inoculated plants compared to all other treatment. The findings of the result will be presented.
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CARALLUMA FIMBRIATA
P.Nrupen Samrat Reddy
Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, A.P.
Caralluma fimbriata (Asciepiadaceae) is traditionally consumed in the form of a pickle and a vegetable and it is also eaten during famines. In traditional medicine, juice of the plant is combined with black pepper in treating migraine. The plant is also eaten raw as a treatment for diabetes. It is used among the labor classes in south India as it suppresses appetite and enhances endurance. Medicinal properties of Caralluma species include carminative, febrifugal, anthelmintic, anti rheumatic, anti diabetic and hypoglycemic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antioxidant effects. Caralluma extracts have found to be appetite suppressants as well as CNS stimulants. Caralluma glycosides are responsible for reduction or elimination of arthritic and other joint pains. Caralluma cactus is non toxic and safe. Caralluma attenuate showed significant anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic activity. So it was expected to reveal similar concrete antibacterial properties by Caralluma fimbriata to prove as a wonder drug; known, but overlooked for centuries. The fresh plants of Caralluma fimbriata were collected, authentified and shade dried. The plant was powdered and extracted with various solvents. MICs were determined. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was carried out in-vitro against B. subtilis, Pro.vulgaris, Pseudo. Aeurogenosa, Staph.Aeureus, K.pneumonia, E.coli and S.typhae using paper disc method. The zone of inhibition was recorded. All the extracts have shown the modest antibacterial activity against K.pneumonia, E.Coli, B. Subtilis and S. typhae. Hence it can be a wonder drug for the respiratory tract infections.
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS
AGAINST HUMAN PATHOGENS
P.Rajasekhar, G.Prasad Babu* and C. Paramageetham
Dept. of Microbiology, S.V.U.P.G. Centre, Kavali
*Dept. of Botany, S.V. University, Tirupati
In India herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases, physiological conditions in traditional methods .A Knowledge of traditional uses by plants by tribals has always formed the basis for all bioprospection and drug development programmes in modern study. India being an emporium of numerous adivasi cultures has a tremendous potential for ethanobotanical studies for short listing biological resources for further scientific scrutiny and product development for human welfare. Based on folklore medicinal reports three plants were selected for the present study and assayed for antibacterial activity against E.coli, Bacillus, Psaeudomonas and Staphylococcus using different concentrations of extract.
EFFECT OF NAJANAJA VENOM AND CORALLOCARPUS EPIGAEUS (ROTTL.ex WILD) CLARKE. ETHANOL EXTRACT ON SELECTED RAT TISSUE ENZYMATIC PROFILES.
P.Vijaya, N.Vijaya Kumari and *G.Sudarshanam
Dept. of Sericulture,S.P.M. University, Tirupathi.
*Dept.of Botany, S.V.University, Tirupathi.
Enzymes make life on earth possible and hence impart many fields of the biomedical sciences. When cells are injured e.g. by impairment of the blood supply (or) inflammation of the activity of such enzymes have become an integral part of medical diagnosis. Envenomation has been shown to interact with multiple key enzymes operative in general metabolism of a number of experimental animals. In rat brain, heart and liver showed lowere total ATPase content, the content in saline treated rat liver showed more total ATPase activity and was followed by brain, and heart. The 150 mg CorallocaJpus epigaeus ethanolic extract treated(LD50 calculated) rat tissues showed no significant differenc of total ATPase activity over the saline treated control group of rats. Similar results were also obtained for Na+/ K+ ATPase and Ca2+/ Mg-ATP ase.
ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIMICROBIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF SPHAERANTHUS AMARANTHOIDES
Prabakaran, M., Srigopalram, S., Thennarasu, V. and Panneerselvam, A
Sri Gowri Biotech Research Academy, Nagai Road, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu.
Secondary metabolites from medicinal plants are associated with toxic hormonal, antineoplastic effects. The present study is focused on the antioxidant antimicrobial and phytochemicals in selected medicinal plants belonging to the members of the family Asteraceae. These medicinal plants were collected from medicinal plant collection unit (MPCU) Sri Gowri Biotech Research Academy at Thanjavur Dt, was subjected to antimicrobial activity. The extraction was taken from Sphaevantus amaranthoides using the solvents acetone, ethanol and aqueous. Antioxidant property and chemical constituents were analysed by Thin layer chromatographic method and the results were discussed.
IMPROVEMENT OF ANDROGRAPHOLIDE IN ANDROGRAPHIS THROUGH PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
Prachi Gudhate, Dipali Lokhande and K. N. Dhumal
Department of Botany, University of Pune, Pune
E mail: email@example.com
Due to global shift from allopathy to ayurveda, there is pressing demand for ayurvedic drugs. The main constraint in ayurvedic drugs is very low content of therapeutically active principles in them. Hence in the present study it was aimed to improve the content of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata by using phytohormone technology. This annual herb belongs to family acanthaceae and known as 'king of bitters' or 'kalmegh of ayurveda'. The active principle 'andrographolide' is present in whole plant body. It is highly medicinally useful in diseases like typhoid, hepatitis, malaria and HIV. The potted plants of Andrographis were given foliar application of Gibberellic acid (GA3), Indole acetic acid (IAA), Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and Benzyl amino purine (BAP), in the concentration of 25mg/liter, 50mg/liter, and 100mg/liter each. The plants sprayed with distilled water were considered as control. The foliar application of these growth regulators were initiated at 30 DAT and continued upto flowering at an interval of 10 days. The HPLC analysis revealed that application of IAA (50mg/L) was very effective to enhance the andrographolide content (77% increase over control) which was followed by NAA (32% increase over control), GA3 (7% increase over control) and BAP (1% increase over control). The whole plant biomass (Panchang) of Andrographis is used in medicine and hence fresh and dry biomass of control and treated plants was also determined. The results indicated that amongst all the plant growth regulators, Naphthalene acetic acid (FW: 79.07 gm, DW: 40.09gm) and Indole acetic acid (FW: 77.63 gm, DW: 34.52gm) emerged as the best treatments for improving fresh and dry biomass over control (FW: 24.63 gm, DW: 16.83gm). The present investigation has given a message for improvement of secondary metabolite through plant growth regulator treatments. The standardization and precision of method for commercial application is in progress.
STUDIES ON PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF STEVIA REBAUDIANA BERT. LEAVES-AN IMPORTANT CALORIE FREE BIOSWEETNER OF HIGH QUALITY
K. Prathap Reddy, D. Preethi, P. Shanmukh Anand, D. Kamakshi and C.V.Naidu
Stevia rebaudiana has many favorable and exciting health benefits and it is completely non-toxic. It belongs to the family Asteraceae. The ability of Stevia to inhibit the growth and reproduction of bacteria and other infectious organisms is important. Stevia also has excellent healing capabilities. Stevia rebaudiana leaves were extracted in methanol, ethanol, hexane, ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate and their antimicrobial activities were tested against six important bacterial strains using cup well method. The following strains were used such as E.coli, P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae, B. subtilis, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus. The results showed variable antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial properties of Stevia rebaudiana leaves were useful in preparing herbal medicines. The phytochemicals namely alkaloids, flavanoids, phenols, steroids and tannins were extracted from the levels of Stevia rebaudiana.
EXPLORATION OF ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE: ROSCOE) TO REGULATE THE LIVER DISEASE IN ALCOHOLICS
Ramakrishna Ch, Shanmugam K.R, Lavanya T and Sathyavelu Reddy. K*
Division of Molecular Biology, Dept. of Zoology, S.V.U., Tirupati – 517 502, AP, India.
Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with the appearance of liver cirrhosis, which is one of the leading causes of alcohol-induced mortality. Oxidative stress due to alcoholism is a major factor in the pathogenesis of alcohol complications in human beings. The fresh and dried rhizome of zingiber officinale Rosc, commonly known as ginger is widely used in traditional medicine. The antialcoholic effect of ginger was well established. In this experiment we explored the possibilities of antioxidant property of ginger extract in alcohol treated rats. In the present study we observed antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and GR activities were increased with ginger treatment in alcohol treated rats when compared to control. The alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities are discussed in the light of gingers antioxidant and antialcoholic properties as medicinal value.
IMPACT OF HEAVY METAL IONS ON LPO LEVELS OF THYLAKOID MEMBRANE ISOLATED FROM CYANOBACTERIUM, SPIRULINA PLATENSIS.
RANJANI, R and MURTHY,S.D.S*
Dept. of Virology and *Dept. of Biochemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati, India.
Spirulina platensis is a photosynthetic prokaryotic blue green algae. Spirulina is the 'Food of the Future' and constitutes 65-71% complete protein with all essential aminoacids in perfect balance. Its metabolic system is based on photosynthesis, a process of direct food energy production utilizing sunlight and chlorophyll, which is typical of plant life forms. Phycocyanin (PC) a photosynthetic pigment protein in phycobilisomes (PBS) of photosystem (PS) in thylakoid membrane and plays vital role in energy transfers in photosynthesis. Many active compounds including PC have many clinical importances. The structure and functions of PC is altered by many unfavorable environmental factors such as temperature, UV- radiation, nutrients and heavy metal ions. Heavy metal ions such as Hg, Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu induce alterations at multiple sites of photosystems of Spirulina. Study of effect of metal ions on LPO levels in thylakoid membrane of Spirulina is essential to know possible neutralizing mechanisms. A heavy metal ion especially Pb and Cu induces damage in the thylakoid membranes and observed increased LPO levels.
EVALUATION OF NEPHROPROTECTIVE POTENTIAL OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSC
M.Sudhakar,V.S.Lakshmi,G.Sirisha reddy and P.Pavani
Mallareddy College of pharmacy, Hyderabad
A large number of xenobiotics used in disease therapy are reported to be potentially nephrotoxic. Oxidative stress due to abnormal production of reactive oxygen molecules (ROM) is believed to be involved in the etiology of toxicities of many xenobiotics. Nephrotoxicity is a major complication and a dose limiting factor for gentamicin therapy. Recent evidence suggests that enhanced oxidative stress caused by oxygen-centered free radicals may contribute to the pathogenesis of gentamicin-induced acute renal failure. The present study was performed to explore the renoprotective potential of zingiber officinale. Ginger Zingiber officinale Rosc, Zingiberacae is a medicinal plant that has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Tibb-Unani herbal medicines all over the world, since antiquity, for a wide array of unrelated ailments that include arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, constipation, indigestion, vomiting, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases and helminthiasis. Ginger is a strong anti-oxidant substance and may either mitigate or prevent generation of free radicals. This inturn has flashed an idea in exploring the nephroprotective activity of Z.officinale.The activity was evaluated using ethyl acetate extract of Zingiber officinale(200mg/kg) prepared by soxhlet extraction and fresh juice extract of Z.officinale(250mg/kg) separately on gentamicin (single dose of 100mg/kg body wt/day for eight days) induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in albino wistar rats (150-250gms). We have studied the renoprotective activity considering four groups of animals with six rats in each group. The four groups include normal control, positive control, ethyl acetate treated group, fresh juice treated group. The results of the study indicated that Z. officinale significantly protected the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin. The serum urea, uric acid and creatinine levels in the gentamicin alone treated group were significantly elevated with respect to normal group of animals. Finally the results were subjected to one way ANOVA which confirmed the renoprotective activity. The present study demonstrates that the renoprotective potential of the fresh juice extract of Z.officinale is better when compared to ethyl acetate extract of Z.officinale. Hence, the fresh juice extract of Z.officinale has a potential to be used as therapeutic adjuvant in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity.
SCREENING OF SOME ANTI EPILEPTIC MEDICINAL
PLANTS IN INDIA
K. Siva Prasad, G. Visweswari, W. Rajendra*
Dept. of Zoology, Division of Molecular Biology, S.V.University, Tirupati, India.
Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicines. In these Centella asiatica and Bacopa monneri, which has anti epileptic properties and these are also memory enhancers. In our present study Centella chloroform fraction showed most significant anti epileptic property when compared to the n-Hexane, Ethyl acetate, n- Butanol and Aqueous fractions. Male Wister rats of 125 ±25 g were selected and the plant extraction was administered 200 mg/kg/po. Artificially we induced seizures by using PTZ 60 mg/kg /ip. Rats were treated with plant extraction for one week and on the last day after 30 min of plant extraction administration, they were treated with PTZ. The tissues were isolated and stored at -800 C in deep freezer. In biochemical assays it clearly showed that the total protein levels are significantly increased in white vastus chloroform fraction 65.26 percent change over control. Red vastus chloroform fraction showed 30.99, soleus showed 67.51, gastrocnemius muscle showed 42.87 increase. The present findings indicated that the Centella asiatica will increase the protein levels and involves directly in amino acid metabolism.
REJUVENATING EFFECTS OF ALOE VERA ON THE EPITHELIAL TISSUES AS A SILENT HEALER.
Azeez S.A, V.L. Srividya and Latha Kumari Jain
SIMS College of Pharmacy, Mangaldasnagar, Guntur-522002(A.P.), India.
Plants have been a source of plethora of medicinal as well as other byproducts for human kind. The present paper mainly concentrates on the potential advantages (Medicinal and therapeutic) of Aloe Vera to be utilized both internally and externally in various formulations that include sprays, creams, gels, lotions, capsules and liquids. Aloe vera (A.barbadensis Mill or A.vulgaris Lam) is a perennial, drought resistant, succulent plant belonging to liliaceae family. It constitutes 99.5% water with an amazing mixture of more than 200 constituents, including polysaccharides (glucomannons), enzymes, lignins, saponins, glycoproteins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. The healing power of Aloe Vera comes from increasing the availability of oxygen to the skin, and by increasing the synthesis and strength of epithelial tissues. The pharmacological active ingredients are concentrated in both gel and rind of Aloe leaves. Anthraquinones (aloin) and saponins, the components of whole leaf of Aloe have direct anti bacterial properties. Aloe vera gel is widely used for skin care and cosmetics due to its anti inflammatory, antibiotic and healing properties with no side effects. It shows its therapeutic effects in the treatment of many disorders like psoriasis and venous leg ulcers.This review paper throws the light of beneficial effects of Aloe vera, acting as a medicinal herb (for topical and oral administration) and a natural remedy for various disorders.
PROTECTIVE ROLE OF PORTULACA OLERACEA L. EXTRACT IN CISPLATIN INDUCED OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN CHICK
Sudhakar Desineni, Krishna kishore R and P.R.Parthasarathy
Dept. of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, A.P.
The present study was aimed to evaluate the possible protective role of Portulaca oleracea L. extract in Cisplatin induced oxidative damage in chick embryonic system. Cisplatin is a Potent chemotherapeutic drug used for treatment of a variety of cancers. But its prolonged use causes nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Portulaca oleracea L. is a plant rich with antioxidants like beta carotene, vitaminE, vitamin A. The biochemical, Pathological and malformations were studied after 24 and 72 hours of incubation of chick embryos. The samples from the embryos, Aminiotic fluid were collected and studied the different biochemical parameters.Results were compared between the cisplatin and Portulaca oleracea L. treated groups, were statistically analysed. The study results showed a dose dependent increase in embryo mortality, malformations like stunted growth, beak deformity, short wings, hemorrhagic fluid and a significant reduction in weight of embryo were observed. In Portulaca oleracea pre treated group the increased biochemical parameters and malformations were come down to near normal, which suggest it embryo protective role in cisplatin induced oxidative damage in chick embryonic system. It can be concluded from the present study that pre administration of Porulaca oleracea L. extract has beneficial effects in minimizing the malformations and restoring the altered biochemical parameters by maintaining the prooxidant/antioxidant balance against oxidative damage caused by cisplatin in chick embryos.
AMELIORATION OF CISPLATIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY BY AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERVA JAVANICA
Sumit Laxane*, Surendra K. Swarnkar, Sachin Zanwar, Vinit Movalia,
M. Manjunath Setty and Annie Shirwaikar
Department of Pharmacognosy, MCOPS, Manipal-576 104, Karnataka
The plant A. Javanica belonging to family Amaranthaceae, is a perennial hairy-tomentose, erect to scandent dioecious conspicuous undershrub, 60-120 cm tall, found near sea coast area mostly in Gujarat state of India, Pakistan and Egypt. A. javanica roots are reported to possess anthelmintic, diuretic, demulcent activity and found useful in the treatment of headache. The plant has been documented earlier as therapeutic agent used in renal disorders, hence present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible nephroprotective effect of the aqueous extract of the roots of A. Javanica in cisplatin nephrotoxic model. Cisplatin induced renal injury was characterized by the elevated blood urea, serum creatinine, and TBARS level and decrease in body weight, GSH, total protein, and serum albumin. This was further evidenced by the histopathological features of acute tubular necrosis. The aqueous extract of A. Javanica at both dose level i.e. 200 and 400 mg/kg was found to normalize the changed blood urea, serum creatinine, TBARS level, GSH level, body weight, total protein, and serum albumin, and bring about a marked recovery in kidney as evidenced by histopathological studies. To conclude, our studies shown that roots of plant A. Javanica possesses marked nephroprotective activity with minimal toxicity and could have a promising role in the treatment of acute renal injury induced by nephrotoxins especially cisplatin.
ANTI INFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL OF THE LEAF EXTRACTS OF PEDILANTHUS TITHYMALOIDES
V.S.Lakshmi and M.Sudhakar G.Swapna*, K.Arunasree and M.Manasa.
Malla Reddy College Of Pharmacy, Hyderabad,A.P,India.
Pedilanthus tithymaloids belongs to family Euphorbiaceae and is widely grown as an ornamental plant. It is widely distributed throughout the India. The latex from the stem and leaves is used as irritant, caustic and for venereal diseases. Proteolytic enzyme pedilanthin has been isolated from the latex and shown to possess milk clotting property and also anti-inflammatory property. The extractions were prepared by using soxhlet apparatus .The present aim is to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CH), alcoholic (AL) and aqeous extracts of leaves of Pedilanthus tithymaloides. The anti –inflammatory activity of extracts were evaluated by two methods one is Carrageenan induced paw oedema and other is by Formalin induced method. In carrageenan induced paw oedema method adult albino rats of either sex weighing about 150-200grams were devided into six groups each group having six animals. Group-1 received with 0.2ml of 10%v/v Tween-80 served as control and Group-2 received Indomethacin (200mg/kg,p.o),Group-3 received with petroleum ether (200mg/kg,p.o), Group-4 received chloroform extract (200mg/kg,p.o), Group-5 received alcoholic extract (200mg/kg,p.o) and Group-6 with aqeous extract (200mg/kg,p.o). In formalin induced method animals were treated with 0.1ml of 1% formalin and in carrageenan induced method animals were treated with 0.1ml of 1% carrageenan. After the treatment the paw oedema volume is measured plethismographically by mercury displacement method. The paw volumes were measured at 1/2,1,2,3,4 and 6hours after drug administration percentage reduction was calculated. It showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity with all the four extracts. All the leaf extracts Pedilanthus tithymaloids at a dose of 200mg/kg exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in both acute and chronic models. The four extracts were also effective in chronic inflammation. Formalin –induced paw oedema was inhibited significantly by all the extracts and also indomethacin when compared to control rats.
ANTI BACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS IN INVITRO CONDITIONS
T. Vijaya1, M. Nagalakshmi Devamma2 and C. Nirmala3
1 and 2 Dept. of Botany, S.V. University, Tirupati
3 Dept. of Biotechnology, S.V. University, Tirupati
Marsdenia volubilis is an important medicinal plant which brought under cultivation very recently in India. The plant parts are being used in pharmaceutical industry for the preparation of various drugs either soley or in combination with other medicinal plant extracts. It is a tall woody climber belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. The leaves, flowers and rind of unripe fruits are rich in Fe and are used as source of vegetables. The bark is used to cure anorexia and nervous dyspepsia. The root paste is applied to cure boils, absence and snake bite. This plant is also known to possess anti-cancers activity. In the present study, the effect of aqueous and solvent extracts of M. volubilis on growth of human pathogenic bacteria and fungi was studied in laboratory condition. It was found that this plant possess a wide range antibacterial and antifungal effect. The findings of the same will be discussed.
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF
V.S.Lakshmi and M.Sudhakar, K.Tejasvini, B.Roshini Raj and M. Radhika.
Mallareddy College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, India.
Pedilanthus tithymaloides belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae and is widely grown as an ornamental plant. It is widely distributed throughout India. Literature on the pharmacological activities and chemical constituents of P.tithymaloides is very scanty. The latex from the stem and leaves is used as an irritant, caustic and for treating venereal diseases. Proteolytic enzyme, pedilanthin has been isolated from the latex and is reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. In the present work we have investigated the anti- microbial activity and identified the extracts, which possess most prominent anti- microbial activity. The different P.tithymaloides extracts were prepared by Soxhlet apparatus.The leaves of Pedilanthus tithymaloides were collected from our college campus and dried under shade. Sri.Srivatsa, Dept.of Botany, L.V.D.College, Raichur, identified the plant. The dried leaves were powdered and extracted with pet ether, chloroform, alcohol and water. Pet ether and chloroform extracts were dissolved in dichloromethane, alcoholic extract in dimethyl formamide, and aqueous extract in distilled water. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichicoli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi were used in anti-bacterial activity testing. Cup-plate agar diffusion method was used to determine the zone of inhibition of the extracts for anti-bacterial activity. The petether, chloroform, alcoholic and aqueous extracts at 100micrograms/ml and 20micrograms/ml concentrations was used as a standard for anti-bacterial activity. Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were used in anti-fungal testing. For anti-fungal activity the extracts, 50microgm/ml and 100 microgm/ml and ketoconazole 25microgm/ml and 50microgm/ml in dimethy sulphoxide was used as a standard. Cup-plate agar diffusion method was used to determine the zone of inhibition. Anti-microbial activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaves of pedilanthus tithymaloides were tested against Gram positive, Gram negative and fungus strains using zone of inhibition. It was observed that pet ether, alcoholic and aqueous extracts have significant inhibitory effect compared to chloroform extract towards all microorganisms except Salmonella typhi used in test. Alcoholic extract was most effective than pet ether, chloroform and aqueous extracts.
COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON VARIOUS PARTS OF PUNICA GRANATUM FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY
Vaidehi Tamboli*, K. Girija, K.Lakshman, Sudipta Chakrabaorty
PES College of Pharmacy, 50 Feet Road, Hanumanthanagar, Bangalore
Punica granatum (Punicaceae) is commonly known as pomegranate.It possesses a vast ethnomedical history and represents a phytochemical reservoir of heuristic medicinal value. All parts of it such as seed, fruit, leaf, flower, bark, roots, rind have been used to ameliorate diseases rainging from conjuctivitis to hematuria.In recent decades there have been several studies documenting the antimicrobial and antioxident properties of different parts of Punica granatum. Punica granatum is reported to contain alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones, saponins, amino acids, sterols, triterpenoids and glycolipids. The objective of present study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of Punica granatum leaves, rind and fruits The antimicrobial activity of the alcoholic extracts of Punica granatum leaves, rind and fruits was evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus salivarius and Gram-negative bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi. Screening of antimicrobial activity was done by using cup plate diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin was used as standard at a concentration 50 g/ml. lt has been observed that all three extracts of punica granatum exhibited antimicrobial activity at least against two of the microorganism tested at concentration of 50mg/ml. The leaves extract possesses strong antimicrobial activity aganist the Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis. The rind extract exhibited significant antimicrobial activity aganist Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis while the fruit extract showed significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus salivarius.Leaf extract of Punica granatum showed moderate activity while fruit and rind extracts of punica granatum showed mild to moderate activity.
ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY OF COLEOUS FORSHKOHOLLI LINN.
*V. Sarovar Reddy, D. Swarnalatha, S. Ramkanth, M. Alagusundaram,
K. Prasanth, and M. Subramani
Annamacharya college of pharmacy, Rajampet, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh
The crude drug Coleous forshkoholli used to treat many diseases and disorders which include liver, kidney, spleen and heart diseases. The free radical and oxygen derivative are constantly generated by this method. The relativity of free radical varies with many causing inflammation or several damage to biological molecules. The lipid peroxidation was carried out in the presence methanolic extract of Coleous forshkoholli copper sulphate (10 µg/ml) was used as the oxidation initiator, conjugated dienes formation and oxygen consumption assessed for monitoring the antioxidant properties of coleous plant extract. Butylated hydroxyl toluene at 50 µg/ml used as standard antioxidant. Quantification of total polyphenolic compounds was carried out according to folin-cicocalten method. Analysis of plant extract revealed at a high amount of polyphenols suggesting. Passive role of this compound in the antioxidant properties. The screening of the test drug Coleous forshkoholli may provide an initiate for the development of new drugs.
CARBAMAZEPINE- HERBAL INTERACTION
Veena, G., Madhavi, M., Latha, P. and Santh Rani Thaakur*
Division of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology,
S.P.M.V., Women's University, Tirupati, Chittor Dist, A.P., India.
Many medicinal herbs and Pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Interaction between herbs and drugs may decrease the therapeutic efficacy or increase the toxicological effects of either component. When Physicians use several drugs concurrently, they need to know whether a specific combination has the potential to result in an interaction. If so, advantage can be taken out of the interaction, which leads to improvement in therapy or consequences can be avoided if the interaction is adverse. Carbamazepine, is a widely used anticonvulsant with a narrow therapeutic index, used for the treatment of partial and generalized seizures. Carbamazepine uses are limited due to its adverse effects, which include heamatological disorders, ataxia, aplastic anemia, skin abnormalities, aggravation of hypertension, coronary artery disease, cognitive impairment, teratogenicity, etc., Herbal preparations are used as an adjuvant to treat the carbamazepine induced adverse effects, but narrow therapeutic index of carbamazepine results in carbamazepine herbal interactions. Herbal preparations lowers the seizure threshold, alters bioavailability, elimination and clinical effects of carbamazepine. Therefore, understanding the interaction between carbamazepine and herbal preparation will help us to know the safety of the use of drugs concurrently.
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF A HERBAL
S.Vidyadhar, D.Chamundeeswari and C.Umamaheswara Reddy
Sri Ramachandra College of Pharmacy, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai
Shampoos are external preparations used to clean the scalp and hair. Powder shampoo is a formulation available in solid form. Since the commercial utilization of powder shampoo is predominant, an attempt has been made to prepare and standardize a herbal powder shampoo, using Acacia concinna pods, Trigonella foenum graecum seeds, Azadirachta indica leaves, Orange peels and rind of sapindus fruit in various proportions. The crude drugs mentioned are authenticated, dried, powdered separately and passed through sieve no.60. They were mixed well in a mortar and packed in airtight container. The powder shampoo is standarised for its pH, foaming test, bubble size, sensitivity and irritability besides microbial content. The pH was found to be 6.3 and it was found to be free from sensitivity irritability and microbes
ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF ETHYL ACETATE: METHANOL FRACTION OF THE BARK OF PTEROCARPUS SANTALINUS (L) IN STZ DIABETIC RATS
Vinay Kumar .K and Appa Rao*
Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India.
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia together with biochemical alterations in the carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism associated with absolute or relative deficiencies in insulin secretion and/or insulin action. Pterocarpus santalinus L.f (PS) belongs to the family Fabaceae and restricted to part of Andhra Pradesh and neighboring areas of Madras and Mysore state. Drinking water in PS wooden cups twice a day or decoction of this bark are used for the treatment of diabetes. Earlier we reported the bark of ethanolic extract of PS at a dose of 250mg/kg body weight showed maximum antihyperglycemic activity and the same dose didn't cause any hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. The bark of ethanolic extract of PS was subjected to column chromatography by using solvents hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol in different ratios. The ethyl acetate methanol 8:2 fraction at a dose of 150mg/kg body weight showing maximum antidiabetic activity than the other fractions. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate: methanol fraction of PS on blood glucose, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense mechanisms. The treatment was given for 6 weeks. After the treatment, a significant reduction was observed in fasting blood glucose levels in the treated diabetic rats, but no hypoglycemic activity in the normal treated rats. The concentration of LPO in both plasma and tissue of diabetic rats significantly higher in diabetic rats then those in the normal rats. The untreated diabetic animals had significantly increased activities of catalase in erythrocytes, liver and kidney compared to those in normal rats. In diabetic rats treatment with ethyl acetate: methanol fraction of PS resulted in a significant decrease in plasma, hepatic and renal LPO and significantly increased SOD and GPx and decreased activity of catalase to compare with standard drug glybenclamide in both RBC and tissues of treated diabetic rats. The results shows partially purified ethyl acetate: methanol fraction has maximum antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effect.
SCREENING OF ANTICONVULSANT EXTRACTS FROM THE MEDICINAL PLANT "CENTELLA ASIATICA" USING THE ALTERATIONS IN CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM DURING PENTYLENETETRAZOLE-INDUCED EPILEPSY
G. Visweswari, K. Siva Prasad, P. Sahitya Chetan and W. Rajendra
Division of Molecular Biology, Dept. of Zoology, S.V.University, Tirupati-517 502, A.P.
Centella asiatica (CA) is also known as 'Jal brahmi' which is commonly used as memory enhancer throughout the world. CA is a creeping plant growing in damp places in India and other Asian countries. Convulsions (seizures) are the common symptom of epilepsy which is a chronic neurological brain disorder. In this study, we have prepared different extracts of CA using different solvents viz., n-Hexane, Chloroform, and Ethylacetate. Anticonvulsant effect of all these extracts (nHE, CE and EAE) was investigated by the analysis of ACh content and AChE levels in male rats. Male wistar strain rats (150±25gm) were divided into 5 groups having 5 in each group. 1st group was control, 2nd was epileptic group administered with Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), 3rd, 4th, and 5th groups were pretreated with nHE, EAE and CE (200mg/kg/bw) for one week. After the treatment, rats were sacrificed and cerebral cortex and hippocampus were isolated. The ACh content and AChE activity were estimated. Our results showed decrease in AChE activity and increase in ACh content in epileptic group and at the same time showed recovered with nHE and EAE. Thus, the present findings indicate that nHE and EAE of CA was found to have a challenging role in quenching PTZ induced cholinergic system during antiepileptic treatment.
ANTIDIABETIC STUDY OF AQUEOUS TUBER EXTRACT OF KYLLINGA NEMORALIS IN STZ-NICOTINAMIDE INDUCED TYPE-2 DIABETIC RATS
Meril Varghese, Yogesh Kamariya, Bharatkumar D. Patel, Annie Shirwaikar.
Dept. of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal
The plant Kyllinga nemoralis (Forster) Dandy ex Hutch belonging to family Cyperaceae, is an erect glabrous sledge with creeping rhizomes, 7.5-30 cm in height, distributed throughout India as well as SriLanka. K. nemoralis tubers are reported as stomachic, astringent, expectorant, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic and anthelmintic. The plant has been documented earlier as therapeutic agent for diabetes, hence the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible antidiabetic effect of the aqueous extract of the tuber of K. nemoralis in STZ-nicotinamide induced type-2 diabetic model. Acute toxicity study of aqueous extract was performed according to OECD guidelines, which showed no toxicity signs up to 4000 mg/kg body weight. Aqueous extract when given to the rats for Oral Glucose Tolerance test showed significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels compared with normal rats. Two doses of the aqueous tuber extract i.e. 200, 400 mg/kg were administered to normal and experimental diabetic rats for 21 days. Significant (p<0.05) reduction in fasting blood glucose levels were observed in the normal as well as in the treated diabetic animals. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, liver glycogen levels were assessed in the extract treated diabetic rats and compared with diabetic control, standard glibenclamide and normal animals. Significant results were observed in the estimated parameters with minimal toxicity, thereby justifying the use of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine.
EFFECT OF VAM FUNGAL INOCULATION ON GROWTH OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA AND GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE
Abirami, P. and Rajendran, A.
Dept. of Environmental and Herbal Sciences, Tamil University, Thanjavur
Pot culture experiment was conducted during 2004 - 2005 to study the assessment of mycorrhizal rom colonization and the effect of ANI fungal inoculation on growth of the seedlings ofAndrographis paniculata Nees and Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. The rhizosphere soil of all the tested host plants had spores but it various with the nature of rhizosaphere soil o( host plants. Conclusion was arrived that the tested plants have responded well to V A~I inoculation and resulted in increased plant height compared to un inoculated plants. Effect of V ~'M: fungi inoculation on plants growth indicates Andrographis paniculata Nees. 90% and Gymnema sylvestre 85%.
HAEMATOPOIETIC ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF BOSWELLIA SERRATA ON CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED BONE MARROW SUPPRESSION
Ajay Sharma1, A.S. Mann1, Amit Jain1, M. D. Kharya1,
K.R. Mahadik, and A.G. Namdeo2
1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,Hari Singh Gour University, Sagar
2 Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Pune
Boswellia serrata (Family- Burseraceae) is an oleo-gum-resin, used for a variety of therapeutic purposes such as cancer, inflammation, arthritis, asthma, psoriasis, colitis and anti-hyperlipidemic. The main active chemical compound of the drug is pentacyclic triterpenic acid, Boswellic acids, which selectively inhibit leukotriene synthesis by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase enzyme in an enzyme directed, non-redox, non-competitive mechanism. This study was planned to investigate haematopoietic activity of different fractions of B. serrata. The samples (100gm) were dried in shade and extracted with petroleum ether (60-80oC) in a soxhlet apparatus to get oleo-resins. The marc, which contains gum (polysaccharides) was dried and extracted with hot water to get aqueous extract (30-35g). The petroleum ether extract (oleo-resin) was freed from the solvent and hydrodistilled using clavenger's apparatus to isolate essential oil (11.0ml). The water layer was decanted off from the flask and resin (59.6 g) was obtained. All fractions, at a dose 100 mg/kg body weight, were examined on anaemic albino rat for certain haematological parameters like RBC, WBC, hemoglobin and platelets count. The essential oil, gum, oleo-resin, oleo-gum-resin was found to be significantly (P<0.05) improve RBC, WBC, platelets and hemoglobin count on the 22nd day after 7th day of continuous administration of cyclophosphamide (3mg/kg body weight), while resin fraction significantly (P<0.05) suppress haematological counts as compared to control.
RECENT APPROACHES IN HERBAL DRUG STANDARDIZATION
Ajay V. Pathak, Vimalkant Sharma, Nilesh Gupta and A. K. Singhai
Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. Hari Singh Gour University, Sagar (M.P.)
The over use of synthetic drugs with impurities, resulting in higher incidence of adverse drug reactions in more advanced communities, has motivated mankind to go back to Nature for safer remedies. Therefore, quality control standards of various medicinal plants used in indigenous system of medicine are becoming more relevant today in view of commercialization of formulations based on medicinal plants. "Standardization refers to the body of information and controls necessary to produce material of reasonable consistency. This is achieved through minimizing the inherent variation of natural product composition through quality assurance practices applied to agricultural and manufacturing processes. The development of parameters for quality control of Herbal drugs is a big task involving biological evaluation for a particular disease area, chemical profiling of the raw material and laying down specifications for the finished product. Therefore, the word "standardization" should encompass the entire field of study from birth of a plant to its clinical application. For standardization and quality assurance purposes, following three attributes are desirable i) Authenticity, ii) Purity and iii) Assay. Authenticity relates to proving that the material is true. Authentication in itself involves many parameters including gross morphology, microscopy, chemical analysis and DNA fingerprinting. Purity pertains to evaluating that there are no adulterants present in the plant material. Assay part of standardization is chemical and biological profiling which could assess the chemical effects and curative values get established. The new era of herbal drug standardization includes pharmacognostical, chemical, biological, biopharmaceutical and molecular approaches of drug development and discovery, where biotechnology driven applications play an important role.
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM LEAF EXTRACT
Antara Choudhury*, K. Girija, K.Lakshman, Vaidehi Tamboli
Department of Pharmacognosy PES College of Pharmacy, Hanumanthanagar, Bangalore.
In India the use of plants for medicinal purpose is common practice. From many centuries people alleviate and treat diseases with different plant extract and formulations. Alcoholic, aqueous, and acetone extracts of Punica granatum leaves were examined for their anti-fungal activity. The crude extracts obtained from the leaves of Punica granatum were tested for antifungal activities against three pathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger, penicillum chrysogenum, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum. The screening of anti-fungal activity was done by agar well diffusion method and the results compared with standard Clotrimazole (125 µg/ml).All extracts showed potential anti-fungal properties. The anti-fungal properties of extracts were comparable with that of standard Clotrimazole. Punica granatum is commonly known as pomegranate.It is regarded as a health giving fruit. It has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial properties. It is also used for treating dysentery and diarrhoea problems. Punica granatum is reported to contain alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinone, saponins, amino acids, sterols, tri-terpenoids and glycolipids. It has been observed that alcoholic extracts of Punica granatum leaves exhibited significant anti-fungal activity while other extracts showed moderate anti-fungal activity. The purpose of the present study is to show the anti-fungal property of the plant Punica granatum.
PHYTOTHERAPY FOR RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS FROM BHAMINI MANDAL, SRIKAKULAM, A.P. INDIA
Kimidi Appalanaidu and S.M.Kasim
Dept. of Botany, Acharya Nagarjuna University. Guntur.
This small paper presents a list of 12 plant species belonging 12 genera and 11 families curing respiratory problems from Bhamini Mandai, Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh, India.Fortunately human race took its origin on this greenish blue planet after the arrival of food synthesizers. The photo synthesizers created suitable environment for the origin and development of human beings by providing food, medicine and shelter.
Man learnt the utilitarian value of plants with respect to food and medicine in trail and error method.Bhamini is a small Mandai covering an area of 139 Sq K.M. with rich forest cover and tribal population endowed with appropriate medicinal practices. Two types of tribal communities (Savara, Jatapu) and rural folk were also having command over healing respiratory problems.The present paper deals with the medic)nal plants which are particularly working against respiratory problems like Asthma, Bronchitis, Bronchial congestion, cold, cough, Catarrh and Tuberculosis. These ailments were cured by certain plants species like Barleria prionitis, Calotropis gigantea, Capparis zeylanica, Datura metal, Dioscorea pentaphylla, Cissus quadrangularis, Erythrina variegata, Justicia adhatoda, Moringa perygosperma, Ocimum sanctum, Terminalia chebula, Strychnos potatorum. Plants parts like roots, stem bark, leaves, flowers are utilized In ethno medicinal practices.
THE WOUND HEALING EFFECT OF HERBAL OINTMENTS FORMULATED WITH AMMANIA BACCIFERA LINN.
M.Balakrishnan1, R.Dhanapal2, Salam Babu.S2, M. Purushothaman3,
Ashok Kumar C.K.3 and Chandra Sekhar K.B4
1Vagdevi College of Pharmacy, Gurazala, Guntur (D), Andhra Pradesh, India-522 415.
2 St.Jhon College of Pharmacy, Yellapur, Hasanparthy (M),Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, India
3 Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, A.Rangampet, Tirupathi, A.P., India-517 102.
4 Dept. of Chemistry, JNT University Engineering College, Anantapur, A. P., India-515 002.
Email: mbalakrishnan66@ yahoo.com
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the wound healing and antimicrobial activity of the ointment formulated with ethanol extract of whole plant extract of Ammania baccifera Linn. in albino rats. The extract was prepared by ethanol (80%v/v) and the extract formulated as herbal ointments by using different ointment bases (anionic, cationic and non-ionic). The herbal ointments were used to treat wounds inflicted (excision) on experimental rats. The wound healing effects of the formulations were compared to that of a standard drug Nitrofurazone. The antimicrobial activity of herbal ointments was also carried out by standard cup plate technique using Ciprofloxacin as standard drug. The formulated herbal ointments showed a progressive decrease in wound area with time, indicating an efficacy of the formulations in healing the induced wounds. By the 18th day, the ointment containing 150 mg /g of ethanol extract of whole plant extract of Ammania baccifera in non-ionic emulsifying ointment base showed 100 % healing. The wound areas in the rats treated with the standard drug, Nitrofurazone showed a 100% healing by healing by the 21st day, indicating that the plant extract, at that given concentration, had a better wound healing property than the standard drug. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated sensitivity to formulated herbal ointments. The data of this study indicated that the ointments formulated with ethanol extract of Ammania baccifera Linn. Whole plant possesses better wound healing activity along with antimicrobial activity support the scientific rationale for the traditional use of this plant in the management of wounds.
EXPLORATION OF HERBAL MEDICINES IN THE TREATMENT
Chaitanya Prasad.E., Muni Vinayaki B., Jyothi B., Deepthi Priya Y.
and Ashok Kumar C.K.
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Sree Sainath Nagar, Tirupathi-517102.
Diabetes mellitus, commonly called diabetes refers to a clinical syndrome of hyperglycemia occuring due to deficiency of insulin. As per WHO (1995) estimated that there are 19.4 million people who are suffering from diabetes and the number will rise to 57.2 million by 2025. Diabetes mellitus can be treated by the use of many herbal drugs. The natural herbs used in diabetes include, Butea monosperma, Cyperus rotunos, Caesalpinia bonducella seed, Fenugreek seed, Bitter melon, Gymnema sylvestre, blue berry leaves, Asian ginseng, Prickly pearcactus, Dandelion greens, Pterocarpus marsupium, Curcuma longa, Catharanthus roseus roots, Tylophora indica roots, Zingiber officinale rhizome. Some herbal extracts like Salacia oblonga can also be used to treat diabetes. The present study focus towards the exploration of herbal drugs in the treatment of diabetes as the hypoglycemic drugs are producing unwanted effects and toxic effects and they will not be suitable during pregnancy. So, there is a need to go for herbal medicine
EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CLEOME VISCOSA AND GMELINA ASIATICA
M.Sudhakar, G.Bharath*, K.Rajesh , V.Pradeep.
Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Secunderabad.
Gmelina asiatica L. belongs to Verbenaceae family is a large straggling or scrambling deciduous bush or shrub , leaves are small and Petioles are about 0.5-3 cm long, flowers are large, borne in short cymules in mostly terminal fulvous-tomentose racemiform panicles 2.5-5 cm long, falling after dawn or as soon as picked in daylight hours . Root extracts of Gmelina asiatica possesses hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect , Extracts of leaves are used in the treatments of skin diseases etc. Cleome viscose L. of Capparidaceae family is an erect herb with viscous foliage , occurring widespread over the whole region from Senegal to Nigeria, and commonly across Africa .Leaves contains alkaloids, seed contains flavones,fattyacids. Many activities like antihyperglcemic, hypoglycemic and various pharmacological activities are evaluated from both the plant extracts, So a further research is carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Cleome viscosa and Gmelina asiatica. Ethanolic extracts(yields; 12%, 8% and 15%) of leaves and flowers of Cleome viscosa and roots of Gmelina asiatica were prepared by soxhlet extraction then concentrated and dried .Methods used for the evaluation are Agar well diffusion method and MIC's by tube dilution.,These extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of microbial activity against E.coli , P.vulgaris and P.aeruginosa . The leaf extract of Cleome viscosa showed moderate activity against pathogenic fungi. This method is carried out against the following, E.coli-enteropathogen, P.aeruginosa, P.vulgaris, B.subtilis, S.aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, R.oligosporus All the extracts exhibited an antimicrobial activity against E.coli-enteropathogen, P.aeruginosa, P.vulgaris, and a moderate activity against, B.subtilis, S.aureus, Only the leaf extracts exhibits significant anti fungal activity against Rhizoporus. In this way antimicrobial activity is evaluated from Cleome viscose and Gmelina asiatica.
ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF
Lchauhan, P, *Gaherwar and LP.Singh
SMS Govt. Science College, Gwalior (M.P.)*Govt. P.G.College, Tikamgarh (M.P.)
Achyranthes aspera L. belongs to family Amaranthaceae. It is a wild plant commonly known as Apamarg, Latjeera, Chitchita, Mayorak etc. The plant grows naturally in plainner parts. The whole plant is reported to possess important medicinal values. The essential oil obtained from the whole plant of Achyranthes showed remarkably good antifungal activity against five plant and human pathogenic fungi :- (i) Aspergillus nidulans , (ii) Aspergillus flavus, (iii) Aspergillus glaucus, (iv) Aspergillus teleus and (v) Aspergillus fumigatus, in comparison to the control drug. The activity against A. fumigatus was maximum (23mm). This fungus is reported to be in high amounts in aerospore and is known to cause varicus allergies. Thus the oil can be utilized for its therapeutic value.
INFLUENCE OF HERBAL GROWTH PROMOTERS ON DIGESTIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND GROWTH OF FRESH WATER FISHCYPRINUS CARPIO (L)
Ch. Venkatrayulu*, A. Kusuma Kumari, K. Uma Maheswari,
V. Kalarani* and D. C. Reddy1
Dept. of Fishery Science and Aquaculture, S.V. University, Tirupati - 517 502, A.P.
*Dept. of Biotechnology, S.P.M.V., Women's University, Tirupati – 517 502, A.P.
Medicinal plant extracts, herbal products used in various traditional systems, have immune potential against various diseases and also influencing growth promotion in animal husbandry practices and human beings. The use of herbal medicines and supplements in aquaculture practices is a new area of research. Phytotherapy in fisheries sector is still in infancy. Hormones, antibiotics, vitamins and several other chemical compounds have been tested as growth promoters in fish and prawn culture. Even though hormones have positive effects on growth of aquatic animals, they cannot be recommended in commercial aquaculture operations due to their residual effects in their bodies. Consumer's awareness and concern over food safety have led to the search for alternative growth promoters of natural origin. In the present study an experiment of six weeks duration was conducted to test the efficacy of the two herbal feed supplements "Aqua Pro Premix" and "Fish Grow Premix" (INDIAN HERBS, SAHARANPUR, INDIA) used as growth promoters in fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio fingerlings (5.0±0.10g). The fish fingerlings were fed with two different experimental diets added with herbal feed supplements (i.e. T1=Basal diet + Aqua pro premix; T2=Basal diet + Fish grow) premix as per dosage prescribed by the manufactures. T0 (Basal diet) without feed supplements considered as control diet. Digestive enzymes like amylase, lipase, protease activities in mid-gut region and growth parameters were estimated. Herbal feed supplement administration produced significantly (P<0.05) higher digestive enzyme activities and growth of fish Cyprinus carpio compared to control diet fed fishes. This study indicated that the herbal feed supplements could be recommended as safe growth promoters for enhancing fish growth and production.
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA FOETIDA LEAF EXTRACT ON HUMAN PATHOGENS
A. Monika, Boddu Sandhya Rani, and Santh Rani Thaakur*
Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, S.P.M.V.V, Tirupati
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Passiflora foetida L., a folklore medicinal plant. Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat chronic as well as infectious diseases. Passiflora foetida is a plant that is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of eczema, eye inflammations, kidney problems, measles, prickly heat, rashes, skin ulcers, urinary burnings and wounds. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae) obtained by maceration was screened for their antimicrobial activity. The extract was tested against 8 different species (Gram positive microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, and Staphylococcus aureus; Gram negative microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella Paratyphi B, Salmonella typhimurium, and Proteus mirabilis) of human pathogenic bacteria by broth dilution method and the agar well diffusion method. The plant extract showed the antibacterial activity against all the eight microorganisms. The lower concentrations of Passiflora foetida possessed similar inhibitory effect against all the test organisms. The lowest MIC values (0.5mg/ml) of alcoholic extract were against S.typhimurium and S.paratyphi B suggesting that the alcoholic extract was most effective against S.typhimurium and S.paratyphi B. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract was found to be more effective against gram -ve microorganisms than gram +ve microorganisms.
HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS FRUIT EXTRACT AGAINST ALCOHOL-INDUCED ADVERSE CHANGES
Damodara Reddy. V, Padmavathi. P, Varadacharyulu. N.C.
Department of Biochemistry, S.K. University, Anantapur, AP, India-515003.
India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the world so it has a vital stake in conversation and sustainable utilization of its biodiversity resources. Plant secondary metabolites have been of interest to man for a long time due to their pharmacological relevance. In this view, the fruit extract of Emblica officinalis gaert, rich in tannoids, polyphenols were tested for their protective activity against alcohol-induced biochemical changes in rats. The aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis (250 mg/kg/b.wt) showed significant hepatoprotection on alcohol induced liver damage in rats. The protective effect was evident from serum biochemical parameters analysis. Co-administration of alcohol and Emblica fruit extract to rats remarkably prevented the elevation of serum transaminases and gamma glutamyl transferase. Alcohol administration caused lowered hepatic mitochondrial and microsomal antioxidant enzymes and elevation of lipid peroxide and carbonyl contents. Co-administration of Emblica officinalis and alcohol to rats significantly and beneficially modulated the above adverse changes. These results suggest that Emblica officinalis may be effective against alcohol-induced adverse changes. The polyphenolic compounds and hydrolysable tannoid principles and vitamin C might have played an important role for the observed protective effect.
EXTENDED USES OF HERB SHATAVARI-ITS ACTION AGAINST CANCER AND MENOPAUSE
Anantha Prasad, D.
Sri Siddhartha Pharmacy College, Nuzvid, A.P.
Indian herbal plant Shatavari -Asparagus racemosus willd. belongs to liliaceae family. It is used in the treatment of dyspepsia, diarrhoea, dysentry, hyperdipsia, caugh, bronchitis etc.Now studies on asparagus extend its uses. identified its therapeutic action against Duodenal ulcers, abdominal sepsis, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer etc.Shatavari contains carotenoids, retinal, thiamine, riboflavin, aspariginase, steroidal saponins, sapogenins etc.Other herbal drugs whose possesses anti cancer activity are aswagandha against rectal cancer, shankhavati against pancreatic cancer, Nigella sativa, antha moola etc. Asparagus mechanism behind antineoplastic activity is by increasing killer cell activity etc. It has direct inhibition action on tumor cell proliferation. Menopause is happens in women between 48 to 55 age, when they are moving to non reproductive stage. Symptoms are hot flush, night sweats etc. clinically asparagus relieves these symptoms. It is worked by decreasing FSH levels etc.SPSB approved to the listing of asparagus capsule.
MEDICINAL AND BYPRODUCTS UTILIZATION OF MULBERRY AS EMERGING BIO-SCIENCE INDUSTRY
P. Deepa and P. Sujathamma1
Silkworm seed Production Centre, Central silk Board, Madanapalle,AP
1Department of Sericulture, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, Tirupati.
Mulberry is known in India as "Kalpa Vruksha" as all the parts of the plant have many uses. Mulberry is having tremendous medicinal properties in all its parts namely, roots, stem, fruit and bark. Many researchers revealed the presence of bio-pharmaceutical components/ molecules in mulberry against various human and veterinary diseases. The various parts of the mulberry plant find use in Ayurvedic preparations. The leaves have diaphoretic and emollient effects and are used for making a decoction that can be used as a gargle for throat inflammation. The Chinese use the leaf tips from young leaves to boil with tea to control blood pressure. The leaf of Morus bombysis contains N-methyl-a-deoxynojirimycin can inhibit the infectivity of HIV. Leaf is also used in the preparation of syrup and moisturizing the skin. The fruits are used to treat sore throat, depression, high fever and are both a coolant and laxative. Decoction prepared from this is used against cerebral arteriosclerosis, central retinisis and nasopharyngeal cancer. The root extract has hypoglycaemic properties. The root bark is used as an antihelmintic, purgative and vermifuge. Mulberry root juice is administered to patients with high blood pressure. The root bark of Morus nigra contains deoxyjirimycin (DNJ), an alkaloid which is also found to be effective against AIDS virus. The decoctions prepared from root are used against acute nephritis, bronchial asthma, pneumonia, cirrhosis, acne vulagaris, whooping cough etc. The milky latex is used as a plaster for sores and for the preparation of dermal creams.
Mulberry leaves are highly palatable and digestible (70-90 %) to herbivorous animals and can also be fed to monogastrics. Especially in the Indian subcontinent, mulberry wood is used for handicrafts, cabinetwork and for sporting woods (e.g. Grass-hockey sticks and tennis rackets). Its thin branches are woven into baskets. Silk producers have traditionally fed mulberry refusals, leftovers from silkworm feeding, to farm animals and to herbivorous carp in polyculture fish ponds (Gongfu et al., 1997). In the countries south of the Himalayas, where mulberry trees occur in nature, their foliage has been part of the traditional mixed diet of domestic ruminants. By-products of mulberry can be commercially exploited for more valuable biotechnological products. Through biotechnological utilization, mulberry can prove to be the most integrated to human life.
ANTI-TUMOR ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL EXTRACTS IN MICE
Deivam S1 Anbu J 2 and Srinivasa Rao G2
1Maharaji College of Pharmacy, Chennai.2Vels College of Pharmacy, Chennai
Aqueous extract of root of Caesalpinia Pulcherrima Sw., (Caesalpiniaceae), leaves of Ocimum sanctum Linn., (Labiatae) and Ocimum basilicum Linn., (Labiatae) prepared by cold maceration method. The present study includes the Preliminary phytochemical screening, acute toxicity study and anti-tumor activity of polyherbal extracts. Preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins and sterols. Acute toxicity study revealed that the aqueous poly herbal extracts, even at high dose (4g/kg) against EAC cell lines produce no death and found to be safe. The antitumor effect was evaluated and confirmed using the following parameters such as survival time, solid tumor growth and haemotological parameters.
STUDIES ON MICROPROPAGATION, PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CLERODENDRON PHLOMIDIS.
N. Raaman, S. Divakar, L. Hariprasath and M. Jeyam
Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai
Clerodendron phlomidis L. has been used in traditional medicinal system and folk medicine system. In the in-vitro conditions, the MS medium amended with NAA (3 mg/L) was highly effective in callus production from leaf explants of C. phlomidis, whereas IAA (0.5 mg/L) + IBA (0.2 mg/L) + NAA (0.2 mg/L) amended in MS medium resulted in significant callus production from the nodal and internodal explants. The organogenic callus of C. phlomidis produced multiple shoots when placed on MS medium amended with BAP (2.5 mg/L) + KIN (1.5 mg/L) + NAA (0.1 mg/L). Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts were subjected to Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). With the TLC solvent system hexane: ethyl acetate (80 : 20), the hexane extract separated into 5 spots with Rf values as 0.19, 0.51, 0.62, 0.87 and 0.94. The chloroform extract produced 3 spots with Rf values as 0.18, 0.43 and 0.59 with hexane: 6 spots with Rf values as 0.17, 0.32, 0.42, 0.52, 0.64 and 0.85 when the TLC solvent was hexane: ethyl acetate (77: 23). When the extracts were tested against human pathogenic bacteria, the 150 µg/mL of hexane extract was effective against Staphylococcus sp. and E. coli. All the 3 concentrations (50 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, 150 μg/mL) of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts produced very significant inhibition on Curvularia lunata and Fusarium oxysporum.
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CAESALPINIA PULCHERRIMA
M.Sudhakar, *Gayatri. Anusha.P and Sahithi.P
Mallareddy College of Pharmacy, Maisammaguda, Secunderabad, India.
Caesalpinia pulcherrima is commonly known as Pride of Barbados or Peacock flower, which is an ornamental plant due to its variety of flowers, which appear yellow,pink,off- white and red with yellow margins. In India it is found in the tropical rain forests, called "Ratnagundhi".This plant has uses in traditional medicine. The stem is used as an abortifacient and emmenagogue; fruits are employed to cure diarrhoea and dysentery; root and stem seem to be cytotoxic.The leaves are purgative and used against kidney stones, malarial fever, bronchitis; juice from the leaves is said to cure fever. 4gms from the root is also said to induce abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy. The juice from the flowers cures sores and the seeds cure bad cough, breathing difficulty, chest pain. It exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Other recent studies demonstrate that extracts from the flower, stem, leaf, fruit, root and seed of C.pulcherrima are also effective against wheezing, bronchitis, malarial infection, TB, other bacteria, fungi and some parasites. The present studies were carried out to demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, the crude alcoholic extracts of C.pulcherrima were tested for activity against various pathogenic gram-ve bacteria like:Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; gram+ve bacteria like: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus; and mould type fungi like: Rhizopus oligosporus. The crude alcoholic extract, showed a significant activity against all the tested organisms.
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GMELINA ASIATICA
K.GiriBabu1*, C. Sridhar2, K.K.Rajasekhar3, R.HariBabu3, KiranKumar3, G. Nagasowjanya3, Y.Jyothi Prasanna Latha4 and S.Pushpa1
1Department of Pharmacology, CBES, SVUniversity, Tirupathi
2C.E.S college of Pharmacy, Kurnool, A.P
3Sri Padmavathi School of Pharmacy, Tiruchanoor, Tirupathi, A.P
4Istitute of Pharmaceutical Technology, SPMVV, Tirupathi, A.P
To study the Anti-inflammatory activity of Gmelina asiatica roots on Albino rats.The ethanolic extract was further fractionated into ethyl acetate solubles of ethanol extract and ethyl acetate insolubles of ethanol extract of roots of Gmelina asiatica(250mg/kg) have been screened for its anti-inflammatory activity potential by carrageenan(1%w/v in saline) induced rat paw oedema model.The activity was measured by comparing the decrease in the oedema volume of Gmelina asiatica root extract group with control(10ml saline) and standard group(Diclofenac sodium 25mg/kg).The ethyl acetate solubles of ethanol extract of Gmelina asiatica showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. From the results it is concluded that Gmelina asiatica can effectively used as anti-inflammatory activity.So the present investigation supports the Folkore use of Gmelina asiatica for inflammatory disorders.
EVALUATION OF ANTI-LICE ACTIVITY FROM HERBAL DRUGS AND ITS FORMULATION
K.V. Gopinath, B. Umamahesh, M. Raghavendra, D Munilaxmi and T. Pushpalatha*
Dept. of Pharmacy, S.V.University, Tirupati - 517 502, A.P., India.
*College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University,
Cheongju, Chungbuk – 361 763, South Korea.
The head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis (Family: Pediculidae), are an obligate ectoparasite of humans that causes pediculosis capitis, a nuisance for millions of people worldwide. It has been treated by methods that include the physical remotion of lice, various domestic treatments and conventional insecticides. None of these methods render complete protection, and there is clear evidence for the evolution of systemic toxicity too. This short-term project describes a 'new series' of tests to examine the effect of herbal and synthetic shampoo containing Terpenes and other's as constituent used against lice and proven having anti-lice activity.
In this test, Ocimum sanctum (Fam: Labiatae) and Lippia nodiflora (Fam: verbenaceae) were communized into coarse powder and extracted with water as solvent. To the extract, added 0.0008%v/v formaldehyde to prevent fermentation. The crude extract was formulated with synthetic base (Galaxy surfactant PVT Ltd, Chennai) without any further modification. Then it was tested for it's anti lice activity (invitro studies). In this novel fabric method of evaluation, 30 X 30 cm clear white muslin cloth (3 in number), and the shampoo is evenly distributed on each one taken as a control, one for test and another as standard. In each, 100 lice were taken and tested for anti lice activity. The results showed that treatment of lice with aqueous extract in synthetic base caused complete immobilization within two hours with no subsequent recovery (95%) and results were compared with standard formulation available in the market (97%). Finally it was concluded that terpenes from the plants formulated into synthetic base shown a promissory results when compared with the standard preparation. In another test, it was also concluded that aqueous extract of the herbal drug in herbal base prepared from seed cover of Sapindus trifoliatus shown that it is less effective (only 60%) and less stable comparing with the standard (97%). In both the tests efficacy wise, it is less but the difference is insignificant there is a lot of scope to improve the efficacy and shelf life of the preparation.
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME HIGHER PLANTS FLORAL PETAL EXTRACTS
G.Narasimha1, A. Sridevi M2, M. Charitha Devi 1and M.Vijayalakshmi2
Dept. of Virology, S.V.University, Tirupati-517502
Dept. of Mirobiology, Nagarjuna University, Guntur.
The invitro antibacterial activity of some higher plants floral petal extracts were tested againt the gram positive and gram negative bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megathorium, Staphylococcus aureus, E.coli and Proteis vulgaries respectively. The selected plant floral petal extracts showed different degree of inhibition zones against the tested organisms. Out of 13 plants only 7 plants floral extracts exhibited activity against the bacteria tested. Among the 13 plants only seven plants floral extracts viz Nerium indicum, Celosia Cristata, Coccinia indica and Cucurbita maxima are found to have comparatively high potential of antibacterial activity.
ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF ECLIPTA ALBA (L.) HASSAK, FRESH AND SHADE DRIED LEAVES AND ROOTS.
Sarada Kali * and C.G. Prakasa Rao
* Sri Sathya Sai University, Anantapur Campus, AP
There is no man on this earth who is incompetent and there is no plant which is of no medicinal value, where everything is present. Infact, a man to manage them properly is seldom available. The leaves and roots of Eclipta alba (L.) Asteraceae a common weed abundantly available in Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh, is reportedly used in the preparation of herbal drugs. The essential oil obtained from fresh and shade dried leaves and roots have also been reported to be anti-microbial and antihelmintic. In the present study it is found that fresh leaves and roots yielded more oil than the shade dried leaves and roots. The major components were found to be α-phellandrene (70.23%); longifolene (20.10%) and α-cedrene (9.676%) from stems; and longifolene (21.10%), α-cedrene (6.69%) and α-phellandrene (72.21%) from roots respectively. Further studies on anti-microbial properties of the essential oils obtained by hydro distillation (both fresh and shade dried leaves and roots) showed more anti-bacterial activity against Aerobacter aerogus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgoris, staphylococcus aures, and Streptococcus lactis and more antifungal activity against Abscidia glauca, Aspergillus flavus, Curvularia pallescense, Furarium semistectum, T.richothecium roseum in the order cited. The percentages of major constituents were studied by GC analysis. Further yield of essential oil from fresh leaves and roots of Eclipta was 3% more than the oil obtained flows shade dried leaves and roots.
INHIBITION OF CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTIVE ENZYMES BY TALINUM PORTULACIFOLIUM (FORSSK) LEAF EXTRACT
** Mohana Lakshmi S., Nageswara Rao Thalapaneni*, and Subhash C. Mandal*
Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Tirupati, A. P
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata – 700 032.
** Email. firstname.lastname@example.org
The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of Talinum portulacifolium (METP) leaves on carbohydrate digestive enzymes was performed and its activity on glucose uptake in isolated rat hemidiaphragm was also established.To investigate the effect of METP on carbohydrate digestive enzymes, -glucosidase inhibitory assay was carried out using mouse small intestine homogenate as -glucosidase solution and also yeast a-amylase inhibitory assay was performed. Effect of METP on glucose utilisation was evaluated by estimating glucose uptake in isolated rat hemidiaphragm. METP effectively inhibited a-glucosidase and a-amylase, In the a-amylase inhibitory assay METP (100-1000 µg/ml) showed dose dependent inhibition and standard acarbose (50 µg/ml) showed 50.33% inhibition. METP showed both sucrase and maltase inhibitory activity 86.00 %, 90.66% respectively at 500 µg/ml. The glucose uptake in the hemidiaphragm was significantly increased by METP (17.16 ± 0.20) when compared to the control group, At the same time uptake was lower than insulin alone (64.2 ± 0.61). The total polyphenolic content of METP was measured and it was 39 µg gallic acid /100 g of fresh weight material.Conclusion – These results suggest that METP has significant inhibitory activity on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and increases the peripheral utilization of glucose. It may act as a potent antihyperglycemic agent.
EFFECT OF SOLENA AMPLEXICAULIS ON ACUTE CARBON TERTRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY
H. Parameshwar, S. Sathesh Kumar, Y. Narashima Reddy,
B. Ravi Kumar and G.Krishna Mohan
Dept.of Pharmaceutical Science, Kakatiya University, Warangal
The hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (Cucurbitaceae) (SAME) at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500mg/kg were evaluated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication in rats. The toxic group which received CCl4 (0.3 ml/kg of CCl4 dissolved in 1:1 ratio in olive oil by subcutaneous (s.c) route) alone exhibited significant increase in serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (TB) levels. It also caused significant (P<0.001) decrease in protein levels. The groups received pretreatment of SAME at a dose of 500mg/kg b.w.p.o. had controlled the AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin levels and the effects were comparable with standard drug (silymarin 100mg/kg b.w.p.o). The total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB) levels were significantly increased in the animals received pretreatment of the extract at the higher dose level. Whereas the groups received TCME at dose level of 250mg/kg does not exhibited significant activity (P>0.05) except the ALP (P<0.01) and ALB (P<0.05) levels. The animals received pretreatment of the extract shown decreased necrotic zones and hepatocellular degeneration when compared to the liver exposed to CCl4 intoxication alone. Thus the histopathalogical studies also supported the protective effect of the extract.
WOUND HEALING EFFECT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BLUMEA LACERA (BURM F.) DC (ASTERACEAE)
A. Rekha Devi3 Nagasesha Reddy, S.2, M. Balakrishnan1, Dhanapal, R.2,
C.K. Ashok Kumar3 and Chandra Sekhar, K.B4.
1Vagdevi College of Pharmacy, Gurazala, Guntur (D), Andhra Pradesh, India-522 415.
2 St.Jhon College of Pharmacy, Yellapur, Hasanparthy (M), Warangal,AP
3Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, A.Rangampet, Tirupathi - 517 102,
4Dept. of Chemistry, JNT University Engineering College, Anantapur - 515 002.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate antimicrobial activity and wound healing effect of the ethanol extract of Blumea lacera (Burm f.) DC leaves in albino rats. Excision, incision and dead space wounds models were used to evaluate the wound healing activity of the extract on albino rats. In each model, animals were divided into two groups of six animals each. In the excision model, group-I animals were topically treated with carboxymethyl cellulose as placebo control and group-II received topical application of the ethanol extract of B.lacera leaves at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 b.w day-1 for 14 days. In an incision and dead space model group-I animals were given normal saline and group-II received the extract orally at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 day-1 for 10 days. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelization, tensile strength (skin breaking strength), weights of the granulation tissue, and hydoxyproline content. Antimicrobial activity of the leaves extract against two microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was also assessed. The extract of B.lacera leaves significantly increased the wound breaking strength in the incision wound model compared with controls (P < 0.001). The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelialize faster, high skin breaking strength (410.0 ± 3.42) and the rate of wound contraction was significantly(P < 0.001) increased in comparison to control wounds, Wet and dry granulation tissue weights, and hydroxyproline content in a dead space wound model increased significantly (p < 0.05). Staphylococcus aureus was found to be susceptible to 92% of the tested plant extract, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed 58% sensitivity to B.lacera. Increased wound contraction and tensile strength, augmented hydroxyproline content along with antimicrobial activity support the use of B.lacera leaves in the topical management of wound healing and it can be used to treat different types of wounds in human beings too.
ANTIDIABERIC ACTIVITY OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA
A.Venu, Sunil Porika, P.V.B.S.Narayana, P.Sivannarayana,
S.Rajeesha and V.Bhavani.
Samuel George Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Markapur
The present study was designed to investigate the activity of charatin, a mixture of steroidal saponins, the major constituents of momordica charantia on blood glucose, in streptozocin induced diabetic rats. Momordica charantia belonging to family cucurbetaceae, an annual plant growing to 6 feet tall. It is cultivated in asia, Africa, southamerica and India and is considered a tropical fruit. Atleast 3 different groups of constituents in bitter melon have been reported to have blood sugar lowering actions of potential benefit in diabetes mellitus. These include a mixture of steroidal saponins known as charatin, insulin like peptides, and alkaloids. Isolation a peptide designated charantin, with a molecular mass of 9.7 kDa, was isolated from bitter guard seeds. The procedure comprised affinity chromatography. Male wistar rats, body weight of 180 to 200gms (12 normal and 30 diabetic rats), were used in this study. The rats were divided into 7 groups after the induction of streptozocin diabetes. In the experiment, 6 rats were used in each group. Each group of animals were treated with different concentrations of charatin (0.05g to 0.20g / kg of body weight). Group 7 diabetic rats given aqueous solution of glibenclamide (600mcg / kg of body weight). The treatment was given for 30 days. After the treatment, fasting blood glucose, were determined in normal and experimental animals.
EFFECT OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS LEAF POWDER ON PLASMA GLUCOSE IN STZ-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
R, Karuna a, B. Ramesh b, and D. Saralakumari a, *
a Dept. of Biochemistry, S.K.University, Anantapur - 515 003, Andhra Pradesh, India
b Dept. of Biochemistry, S.V.University, Tirupati – 517 502, A.P., India
Catharanthus roesus (Apocynaceae) is well known traditionally used medicinal plant. In the present study antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of C. roseus leaf powder was evaluated by using STZ-induced diabetic rat model. Animals were randomly divided in to four groups: Normal (N), normal treated (NT), diabetic untreated (DUT) and diabetic treated (DT). C. roseus leaf powder was administered at 100mg/kg body wt/day to NT and DT groups by gavage for 60 days. During experimental period body weight, plasma glucose, plasma insulin and lipid profile were measured at an interval of 15 days. The non-toxic nature of C. roseus was revealed by unaltered body weight, plasma glucose and insulin of NT rats compared to N rats. In DT rats a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in plasma glucose was observed and the plasma glucose reached to near normal level. In DT rats plasma insulin was significantly high when compared to DUT rats, but it is not reached near normal value. DUT rats showed significant increase in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL and LDL and significant decrease in HDL concentration. Antihperlipidemic activity of C. roseus was observed in DT rats. Our results demonstrated that C. roseus with its antidiabetic and antilipidimic activity is useful potential herbal medicine in treating diabetes.
TURMERIC MITIGATES ALCOHOL SUPPRESSED AMMALIAN CELLULAR NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE ACTIVITY
K. Vijaya Kumari, M. Chaya Ratan, B. Johanna Rass, P. Jacob Doss *
A. Bujjamma and M.R. Rao*
Women Development, Child Welfare and Disabled Welfare Department, Hyderabad
* Dept. of Zoology, S. V. University, Tirupati - 517502.
Tumeric is well known for its medicinal values. Nitric oxide (NO) is assigned various physiologic functions in the body and is produced by the action of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We measured the selected mammalian cellular NOS activity in the presence of tumeric and alcohol separately and inormbination. Tumeric inlutions of 1: 1, 1: 10 did not alter the cellular NOS activity, where as alcohol in concentrations of 10% and 20% inhibited rat endothelial, smooth muscular, macrophate and lymphocyte based cNos activity significantly and the turmeric reverted the alcohol inhibited rat cellular Nos activity. As the enzyme Nos is calcium, calmodulin dependent one, alcohol by interacting with Ca2 / can may impair the rat cellular Nos activity and that the turmeric by exerting its antioxidant property, in part may afford protection against the alcohol affect on rat cellular preparations.
ROLE OF PLANTS ON SUCCESSFUL AGEING OF CENTENARIANS
N. N. Sudha Rani, C Ramesh, A.Sudhakar and *D. Jamuna
Department of Psychology and Botany, SVArts College, Tirupati
*Department of Psychology, SV University, Tirupati
Longevity is a prized aspirations of many a persons. Centenarian character as a unique gift of nature given to human beings. Longevity particularly beyond 100 years is of great scientific interest. Some studies on ageing estimated there were about 100000 man in the world who were over 100 years old. Present study picking the distinguishing characters of Centenarians particularly utilization of plants. Detailed case studies of some Centenarians of RayalSema region of Andhra Pradesh were made using standard schedules. Plant materials used as a daily diet is a part of their life style. Some plant communities as vegetarian food taken by these Centenarians has an immense impact on exceptional longevity of these persons. An attempt has been made in the investigation to explore the role of locally available plants in maintaining the health care and life style of Centenarians with their personal experiences. The continuous regular use of some plants has a significant effect on their successful Ageing.
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FRUIT EXTRACT OF
COCCINIA GRANDIS L.
Gowri.K*, R.Vadivu, V.Chitra, Aishwarya and A.Krithika,
S.R.M. College of Pharmacy, S.R.M University, Kattankulathur
Coccinia grandis Linn. (Curcubitaceae) commonly known as Ivy gourd, is a slender dioecious perennial climber with tuberous roots cultivated throughout India. In folklore medicine the fruit is used to treat leprosy, fever, asthma, infective hepatitis, in skin disease and also to cure sore throats, as expectorant and astringent. Literature review of the plant revealed that the alcoholic extract of the plant is used as hypoglycemic, antioxidant, a compound polyprenol isolated from ethanol extract posses anti dyslipidimic activity. Considering the use of fruits in folklore claims we have proposed evaluate the antimicrobial properties of the fruits Coccinia grandis Linn. The alcoholic extract of fruits of Coccina grandis Litm at various concentrations (25, 59, lOOllg/ml) were used for the study of anti bacterial and anti fugal activity. The antibacterial activity studies were carried by using cup plate method against various organisms like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas areogenosa, Staphylococus aureus, Klebsiella pnemonisae. The zone of inhibition was compared with standard chloramphenicol disc(30llg/disc). The antifugal activity was carried out by using Aspergillus nigar and Candida albicans on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar media. The results we~'e compared with standard Clotrimazole (30~lg/disc). The results suggest that the extract is active against Pseudomonas areogenosa Klebsiella pnemonisae Candida albicans in all concentrations and it is active against Staphylococus aureus only at lOOIlg/ml. It does not have any action on Escherichia coli and Aspergillus nigar. Our results suggest that the alcoholic extract of fruits of Coccinia grandis Linn posses good anti microbial activity, which may be due to the presence one or more bioactive constituent present in the fruits.
EFFECT OF LEAF JUICE OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS L ON THE DETOXIFICATION OF ALBINO RAT LIVER
M.Vani and P.Suguna P. Muni Lakshmi, P.S. Poornima
Department of Zoology and Botany, S.V. Arts college Tirupati
To investigate the effect of leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus L .on the antioxidant enzymes glutathione S transferase, superxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation of rat liver. After 3 weeks glutathione S transferse, superoxide dismutase, catalase activites were significantly increased when compared to control group.This study showed that the intake of cathranthus roseus in rats results in an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and decrease in MDA levels. The significant increase in glutathione transferase activity then induction aimed at counteracting the oxidant stress induced during the treatment with Catharanthus roseus leaf juice extract. It shows the significant medicinal value of catharanthus roseus on antioxidant enzymes in rat liver
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF COCHLOSPERMUM HELICACABUM AND TYLOPHORA ASTHAMATICA
B.Seenivasulu, G.Prasad Babu* and Ch. Paramageetham
Dept. of Microbiology, S.V.U.P.G. Centre, Kavali
*Dept. of Botany, S.V. University, Tirupati
Natural products have played a key role in pharma research as many medicines are either natural products or derivatives knowledge of traditional uses of plants by aborigines has always formed thereof. Indeed, it has been estimated that about 40% of all medicines are natural products. For bacterial infections, over 80% of all medicines in clinical use are either natural products or derivatives thereof .Various Leaf extracts (Hexane, Methanol, Ethyle acetate and Water) of Cordiospermum helicacabum and Tylophora asthamatica were tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against four bacteria (E.coli, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus) of Human origin at different concentrations.
ANTIDOTE FOR DEADLY POISONOUS CLEISTANTHUS COLLINUS LEAF POISON: A CASE REPORT ON SURVIVAL OF
PATIENT FROM DEATH
*N.V. Nanda Kumar, K.M. Vijaya Lakshmi and R. Manoraniani *
Dept. of Fishery Science and Aquaculture, S V University. Tirupati
Cleistanthus collinus plant leaves are abused for suicidal purposes and a number of deaths were recorded in CMC Hospital Vellore, Madras Forensic Laboratory, S.V. Ruya Hospital Tirupati. For the first time it was reported that the leaf extract causes neuromuscular blockade at post synaptic receptors in rat. The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) blockade was ana lysed in vivo in the sciatic nerveanterior tibialis muscle prepeartion of rat. The pattern of nerve evoked compound muscle action potentials (NCMAP) at various frequencies .of supramaximal electrical stimulation from single to 100 hz were recorded. Administration of CCLE showed a sequential decremental response in NCMAP resembling the established EMG patterns of post synaptic Ach receptor blockade. A transient improvement and repair of the decremental response in NCAMPs after administration of neostigmine was observed. The muscle impairment due to neuromuscular blockade was reversed. A case report of a patient in a hospital showed that a patient who consumed leaf! extract for committing suicide and who was in the state of collapse with lung machine and oxygen tent recovered gradually after administration of neostigmine.
LIPOXYGENASE AND ITS RELATION TO THE MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS L LEAF DISCS
P.Suguna and G.Venkatachalamaiah Chetty
Department of Botany, S.V.Arts College Tirupati, A.P.
Catharanthus roseus leaf discs incubated in dark, in calcium chloride and benzyl adenine maintained higher levels of chlorophyll and protein than controls. Senescence of catharanthus roesus leaf discsis accompanied by an increase in the activity of lipoxygenase. CaCl2 and benzyladenine treatment reduced Iipoxygenase activity and the effect of these compounds in combination was additive. Lipoxygenase mediates oxidation of PUFA leading to the formation of free rddicals that then oxidise chlorophyll molecule these alterations in lipoxygenase may be suggestive of concomitant changes in the membrane ultra structure and function leading to the perturbation of indole alkaloid sequestration capability of a species of pharmaceutical significance.
STUDIES ON LEAF BLIGHT AND WILT DISEASE INFECTED SPECIES OF CYMBOPOGON TOWARDS SUGARS AND PHENOLS
Mary.T.N. and Sarath Chandra Bose. N
Dept of Botany and Micro Biology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur A.P
E mail: email@example.com
The grasses that yield food and fodder are known from time immemorial and considerable amount of research has been carried out on them. But the grasses that yield essential oil and raw material for pharmaceutical products are the best studied in grass family. The present grass under the study Cymbopogon Spreng is an aromatic grass that belongs to tribe Andropogoneae of Poaceae. The species of Cumbopogon are known to suffer from a number of diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses etc. The diseases are major limiting factors for large-scale cultivation of some of Cymbopogon species, causing considerable reduction of crop yield. Many diseases besides badly affecting oil yield, they lower the quality of the oil because of the possible interference in the biosynthetic pathways of the essential oils. Since a large number of fungi are the major cause of damage to Cymbopogon species, better understanding of the common fungal pathogens infecting the species Cymbopogon is an essential task in crop improvement of this aromatic grass. Hence, the species i.e. C.martinii (Roxb) Wats var. motia under Rusae, while other three C.citratus (DC) Stapf, C.flexuosus (Nees Steud) Wats, C.nardus Rendle under series Citrati were chosen in the study. With the preliminary survey of available geremplasm of infected species of the present study belonging to Cymbopogon, it was evident that tow fungal pathogens were identified causing leaf blight by Cuvularia androgpogonis and wilt disease by Fusarium oxysporum. Their effect on sugars and phenols are presented here. No significant differences in total sugars were observed in both healthy (22 to 25mg/100g) and diseased species (ss to 25 mg/100g). But total phenols showed significant differences in healthy (10-9mg/100ml) and diseased species (0.8 to 0.9 mg/100ml). The susceptibility of the species of Cymbopogon- i.e. C.martin was found to be more than other three species.
EVALUATION OF WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF
Sanjay P Umachigi3, K.N. Jayaveera1, C.K. Ashok Kumar2, G.S. Kumar3.
1Dept. of Chemistry, JNTU College of Engineering, Ananthpur-515001, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Tirupathi, 517132,
3Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Sri Krishna Chaithanya College of Pharmacy, Madanapalle-517325, India
The extract of Hibiscus syriacus was administered topically to rats at a dose of 150mgkg–1 day–1 for 10days and was studied for its effect on wound healing, using the excision wound model. A 60% reduction in wound diameter was observed in the test group rats receiving the extract compared to controls (48%). Significant increases in wet and dry granulation tissue weights (P < 0.001), hydroxyproline (P < 0.001), and hexosamine (P <0.003) contents were detected. An increase in protein content was also detected in the test group (P > .05, ns). These findings are consistent with wound healing at cellular levels. The pro-healing action may be attributed either to increased collagen deposition or to better alignment and maturation or both. The test wounds (extract-treated wounds) were, on average, fully healed by the 13th day, whereas the control group healed, on average, by the 20th day. These data suggest that the extract of Hibiscus syriacus administered topically has wound-healing potential in rats. Wound area measurements showed test wounds decreased significantly in size compared to controls. Additionally, the test group showed a faster rate of Healing. This study showed a significant increase in the amount of granulation tissue produced in test wounds. Histology gave supporting evidence of improved pattern lay-down for collagen in the test group compared to controls.
POTENTIALITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF AGASTACHE RUGOSA AND THYMUS VULGARIS AGAINST OPPORTUNIST FUNGAL PATHOGENS
C. Vijaya, M. Vijaya Lakshmi 1 and M. A. Singaracharya2
Dept. of Biotechnology, Jawahar Bharathi Degree and P.G.Studies, Kavali
1Dept. of Microbiology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur
2Dept. of Microbiology, Kakatiya University, Warangal
In the setting of HIV and organ transplantation, infections caused by opportunistic fungi have become a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Thus antifungal therapy is playing a major role in health care. Scientific experiments since the late 19th century have documented the antifungal properties of some spices, herbs and their derivative components. These are of special interest because present antifungal therapeutics are often toxic, induce problematic drug – drug interactions and become non-effective when resistance develops. Given these problems, the development of natural antifungal agents is an attractive objective.In this context to assess the in vitro antifungal activity of aqueous extracts of 15 plants, standardized microdilution broth methodology was used. Five frequently occurring opportunistic fungal pathogens were cultured and exposed to the plant extracts and three commonly used antifungal antibiotics were used as positive controls.Of the 25 plants screened Fragaria virginiana, Potentilla simplex Epilobium angustifolium, Thymus vulgaris, Cinnamom xeylanicum, Schizium auromaticum, Cinbopogan demonstrated strong antifungal potential overall (against A.flavus, E.rubrum, P.corylophilum, C.albicans, Blastoschizomyces capitatus). Alnus viridis, Betula alleghaniensis, Solidago gigantean, and Agastachea rugosa also demonstrated a significant degree of activity against yeast isolates.As research studies are indicating essential oils extracted from these spices are showing antimicrobial activity, the essential oils of these above proven spices tested further by disc diffusion and broth microdilulion methods using wheat flour based agar medium. Among these essential oil of Agastache rugosa and Thymus vulgaris showed 2-3 fold more activity than the others on two important opportunistic fungi C.albicans and B.capitatus. This preliminary in vitro study demonstrated the potentiality of these two spices A.rugosa and T.vulgaris against a common opportunistic fungi documented to cause severe and fatal mycoses in immmuno compromised patients.
PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ESTIMATION IN ACACIA CAESIA (L.) Willd.
C. Aruna, N. Yasodamma and A. Suvarna Latha
Dept. of Botany, S. V. University, Tirupati.
Acacia caesia (L.) Willd. is an important medicinal plant used by the herbal practitioners to cure various ailments. Each part of the plant is used to cure various diseases. Leaves as antiseptic, stem bark used as lice killer, cleansing, treat skin diseases, Asthma and Bronchitis. Flowers used to treat menstrual disorders. Hence due to these immense medicinal therapeutic properties of the plant, it has been selected for the separation and identification of Phenolic compounds by Ibrahim and Towers, 1960 method. Fresh leaves, stem bark, flowers, fruits are taken for the present study. About 10 Phenolic compounds in leaves Cinnamic acid, Trans Sinapic acid, Phloroglucinol, Phloretic acid, Salicyclic acid, Melilotic acid, Neo-Chlorogenic acid, Scopoletin, n-Hydroxy benzoic acid, O-Coumaric acid, 9 compounds in stem bark Cis Sinapic acid, Phloretic acid, Melilotic acid, β-Resorcylic acid, Neo chlorogenic acid, Syringic acid, O-coumaric acid, Gentisic acid, Phloretic acid, 11 compounds in flowers Cinnamic acid, Trans Sinapic acid, Phloroglucinol, Salicylic acid, Asculetin, Chlorogenic acid, Scopoletin, P-Hydroxy Benzoic acid, O-Coumaric acid, Gentisic acid, 8 compounds in fruits Cinnamic acid, Trans Sinapic acid, Phloroglucinol, Phloretic acid, Vanillic acid, Caffeic acid, Protocatechuic acid, Trans-Coumaric acid have been identified by the colour reactions, based on standard Rf Values and also correlating authentic samples. A correlation made between the bio-active nature of Phenolic compounds and the medicinal properties of the plant revealed that these compounds might be enhancing the medicinal property. Antiseptic property of leaves may be due to the Salicylic acid and antimicrobial property of the stem bark is due to Melilotic acid and Sinapic acid.
TERMINOLOGICAL CONCEPTS OF MEDICINAL BARK STRUCTURE.
Sir Theagaraya College, Chennai.
Plant barks contribute significant share to both allopathic and traditional systems of herbal formulations. The barks serve both as a protective sheath to the plant axis and as sink of many organic and inorganic compounds. The phloem is the active conducting channel of photosynthetic products and form complex transport system parallel to the xylem. Many biologically active molecules which are endowed with wonderful medicinal properties are soured from the barks. In pharmacognostic studies of the barks, structural description of various tissue systems is imperative. Technical terms pertaining to the characters and their states ofthe bark-tissues ought to be precise and unambiguous. Realizing the need of a well developed, internationally applicable terminology ofa bark structure, equivalent to that of Wood Anatomy, Martin and Crist,1970; Parameswaran, 1980; Troekenbrodt,1990; Lev-yadum, 1991; and Junikka, 1994 have proposed various terms to be adapted for bark anatomy. The present paper advocates the technical terms of bark structure that can be used and those that can be discarded for effective and clear communication. Suitable illustrations for various structure of the barks are provide to complement the terminological concepts.
STUDIES ON SOME PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROFILES OF BOSWELLIA OVALIFOLIOLATA LEAVES
Vishnu Priya, B., Venkateswarlu Naidu, Y., Mohana Lakshmi, S.,
Raja, S.* and Ashok Kumar, C.K.
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy,
Sree Sainath Nagar, Tirupati- 517502. A.P. India
*Bharath Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ibrahimpatnam, A.P. India
The macroscopic and microscopic characters, physical constant values, extractive values, behavior on treatment with different chemicals, fluorescence characters under ultraviolet light after treatment with different chemical reagents, of powdered Boswellia ovalifoliolata (Burseraceae) leaves were studied to elaborate some pharmacognostical profiles of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of methanol extract of the leaves were also done to know the presence of different phytoconstituents in the plant.
PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON MIMOSA PUDICA
Dnyaneshwar D.Kokane, Prachi Mehendale, Minakshi Nehete. Chhaya Gadgoli
SVB's College of Pharmacy, Sonarpada, Dombivali, Dist. Thane.
E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Mimosa pudica, commonly known as Lajjalu (Hindi), is called as a sensitive plant / touch-me-not in English. It is an annual or perennial herb belonging to family Mimosaceae. The root of M.pudica is used in the form of decoction in gravel and other similar urinary complaints, treatment of piles, fistula and against Cobra bite. The root also shows anti-convulsant activity. Ayurveda reports utility of M.pudica in arresting bleeding and enhancing wound healing process, however, no experimental evidences are available for the same. Hence, it was thought worthwhile to evaluate wound healing activity of M. pudica on preliminary basis. The roots of M. pudica were procured from the local market, Mumbai and authenticated at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, India. (Voucher Specimen No. R-083). The methanolic extract of the root was screened for wound healing activity in albino rats using excision and incision wound models. Wound healing activity was evaluated by incorporating the extracts in Simple Ointment base at 0.5%, 1%, 2% w/w. The roots of M. pudica were evaluated using various physicochemical parameters. Such as Loss on Drying, Ash Value, Extractive Values, and qualitative chemical evaluation. Macroscopic and Microscopic studies on the root were also carried out. The efforts were also made to quantify the tannins using chromatographic methods. The root was found to contain high quantity of tannins and alkaloids. The inorganic content of the roots was found to 5.67 % w/w. The root yields high amount of polar constituents, which was revealed from higher water soluble extractive values (22.1% w/w). The methanolic extract exhibited maximum wound healing activity at the concentration of 2%w/w.The preliminary investigations reveal that the root has potential to be explored as wound healing agent, probably due to high conc. of tannins.
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOL AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF PHYLLANTHUS RETICULATUS POIR
Aswatha Ram H.N., Falguni P Gajera and Sachin B Zanwar
Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal Karnataka.
Free radicals are implicated for many diseases including Diabetes mellitus, arthritis, cancer, ageing, etc. In the treatment of these diseases, antioxidant therapy has gained utmost importance. Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir (Euphrobiaceae) popularly known as 'potato-bush' is an important medicinal plant and useful in vitiated condition of pitta, burning sensation, strangury, gastropathy, ulemorrhagia, ophthalmodynia, sores, burns, suppuration, diarrhoea, skin eruption, diabetes and obesity. Keeping in view of the cited activity, it is contemplated to screen the plant for in vitro antioxidant activity using different models viz DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, iron chelating activity and lipid peroxidation assay. The results were analyzed statistically by regression method. Its antioxidant activity was estimated by IC50 value and the values were found to be 20.36 µgm/ml (DPPH radical scavenging), 42.59 mgm/ml (ABTS radical scavenging), 32 µgm/ml (iron chelating activity) and 41.91 mgm/ml (lipid peroxidation). In all the testing models, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the extract and percentage inhibition of free radicals, metal chelation or inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The antioxidant property may be related to the polyphenols and flavonoids present in the extract. These results clearly indicate that Phyllanthus reticulatus is very effective against free radical mediated diseases.
REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF HOLOSTEMMA ANNULARE
(Roxb.) K.Schum., (ASCLEPIADACEAE)
Fernv K Haneef, Radhamany P.M and Ganga Prasad A
Department of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom,
Holostemma annulare (Roxb.) K. is a rare medicinal plant belonging to the family Asclepiadaceae and is widely distributed in the tropical rain forests in India. (Sivarajan and Balanchandran, 1994). The root tubers of this plant are useful in ophthalmopathy, orichitis, cough, fever, burning sensation, stomachalgia and also as expectorant, tonic, stimulant and galac'tagogue (Warrier et aI., 1995). The discriminate and ruthless collection of the root tubers in recent times has led to acute scarcity of the plant and is listed out as vulnerable and rare in Foundation for Revitalization of Local Health Tradition red list of medicinal plants (FRLHT, 1997). Therefore the plant needed immediate attention and conservation. The present study deals with the reproductive biology of H annulare in details for revealing the facts of rare seed set observed in the plant. This study will aid to overcome the possible hindrances of smooth and natural seed set of the plant. All the insects observed as flower visitors in the study were not regarded as pollinators. The conical tip of the stigma does not give provision to seat the entire pollinia more time till its germination without its actual pollinator. This may be one of the reasons for the rare seed set. Pollen viability tests conducted in this plant always showed the positive results, so the rare seed set in this plant may not be due to the lack of pollen viability. From the study it may be concluded that absence of suitable pollinators and suitable ecological conditions in the field leads to rare seed-set in H annulare. It would appear that vulnerable and rare status of H annulare is not only the result of the overexploitation for root tubers but also due to the deficit of enough propagules.
STUDIES ON SOME PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROFILES OF ABRUS PRECATORIUS LEAVES
Raga Ramya G., Damodar M.V., Jyothi B., Deepthi Priya Y. and Ashok Kumar C.K.
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Sree Sainath Nagar, Tirupati-517 502
The powdered leaves of Abrus precatorius Linn. belonging to the family Fabaceae were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Physical standards of leaf powder were determined which includes moisture content and ash values. Preliminary phytochemical screening on methanol extract of the leaves was performed. The chemical standards were also determined which includes behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents, fluorescence characters under Ultraviolet light after treatment with different chemical reagents on the powdered leaves to fix some pharmacognostical parameters of the plant.
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL INVESTIGATION OF LEAVES OF POLYSCIAS FILICIFOLIA
V.Sheela, Muppaneni Hanisha and Madhu.C.Divakar
SRM College of Pharmacy, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu
Polycias filicifolia is an erect, glabrous, shrub of warmer parts of India Especially in kerala, in south eastern Asia and the south pacific. The leaves and root of the Plant was already reported for its ginseng like activities. The present work have attempted to study the Morphology, microscopy and physico-chemical constants of the leaves
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL, PRELIMNARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF JASMINUM SAMBAC
1 A.Krishnaveni and 2Sant Rani Thaakur
1 Dept of Pharmacognosy, Madurai Medical College, Madurai.
2Dept of Pharmacology, S.P.M.V.V. Tirupathi. A.P.
Jasminum sambac belongs to Oleaceae. it is a sub erect shrub found throughout India, In China,flowers are used for scenting tea. In Malayasia traditional practice flowers are used for congestive headache and lactifuge. Leaf preparations are used in eye lotion ulcers and skin complaints. Balsam of leaf are used to treat insanity. An attempt was taken to study the pharmacognostical studies including macroscopy and microscopy, physical constants and prelimnary phytochemical studies of the leaf .The leaf material was collected in the medicinal garden Madurai Medical College, Madurai. The plant was identified by Dr.Stephen taxonomist American college of arts and Science, Madurai. The plant was shade dried, powdered coarsely and subjected to powder microscopy, ash values, extractive values and phytochemical screening . The macroscopy of the leaf shows simple, alternative arrangement with oblong or elliptic glabrous. The macroscopy of the leaf shows simple,opposite arrangement with acute apex,equal base,entire margin,glabrous surface possesing white fragrant flowers give rise to fleshy fruits. Microcopy reveals the presence of cuticle,single layered upper lower and epidermal cells. Follwed by a single layered palisade parenchyma multilayered collenchyma, spongy parenchyma scatteredly arranged. Vascular bundles surrounded by a thin layer of colorless cells.2-3 layered pitted cells are observed. . The results of leaf would serve as standard helps to fix the pharmacopoieal standards for the plant. The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, flavanoids, sterols and sugars.
ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TABERNAEMONTANA DIVARICATA (LINN.) FLOWERS
V.Uma Rani, Dr.M.Sudhakar.A.Lalitha, K.Vidya, N.Swetha,
Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, India.
Tabernaemotana divaricata is a glabrous, evergreen, dichotomously branched shrub, belonging to the family:Apocynaceae. Flowers of this plant possess anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer , analgesic activity due to the presence of flavonoids, kaempferol etc. The present investigation aims at assessing the effect of methanolic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata(Linn.) (METD) on pylorus ligation and alcohol induced gastric ulcers in rats. Adult Albino rats of either sex weighing about 150-200 gm were used for the study and were randomly divided in to three groups of six animals each. Pylorus Ligation method: Group-I received saline and served as normal control.Group-II received standard Omeprazole drug 8mg/kg p.o. Group-III received METD at a dose of 500mg/kg orally 30 min prior to noxious challenge, for 4 days. Pylorus ligation was performed on overnight fasted rats on the 4th day. After 4 hrs of pylorus ligation, the animals were sacrificed and the gastric contents were subjected to various biochemical parameters. In pylorus ligation model, METD at a dose of 500mg/kg p.o showed a significant reduction on the ulcer index, free and total acidity, and increase in pH and percentage of gastric protection when compared to control. Alcohol method: The procedure followed was same, but additionally Group-II and Group-III were given absolute alcohol. METD at a dose of 500mg/kg p.o showed reduction in the formation of gastric ulcers induced by alcohol compared to control group. Histopathological studies were conducted and the results were compared with standard Omeprazole 8mg/kg p.o. Statistical analysis was carried out using ANOVA test. It was concluded from our study that METD at a dose of 500mg/kg possesses anti-ulcer activity in the models employed by reducing the aggressive factors and by enhancing the defensive process.
ESSENTIAL OILS: NEW TERPENOIDS FROM WEEDS
Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences,
Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur
The weeds possess aromatic flavour of essential oils which are terpenic in nature. These essential oils obtained by steam distillation. The weed plants Caesulia axillaries, Cythocline lyrata, Laggera aurita, Blumea mollis, Pseudosarghum grass, Oenanthe stolonifera, Psoralea corylifolia have been claimed to possess new terpenoids. Its isolation and chemistry was carried out. Two non- isoprenic terpenes and a number of new terpenoids have been isolated from essential oils of weed plant. The essential oil of Cythocline lyrata - two new non-isoprenoid terpenes namely lyratol and its acetate have been isolated. Some new terpenoids i.e. γ-asarone from Caesulia axillaris, Laggerol from Laggera aurita., 2,3-dimethoxy-p-cymene from Blumea mollis., 5-hydroxy-p-cymene-2-oxyborylene from Pseudosarghum grass Corylol and Corylen from Psoralea corylifolia and dillapiole from Oenanthe stolonifera have been isolated from their respective essential oils by chromatographic techniques. All these compounds have been characterized and their structures have been assigned on the basis of elemental analysis, chemical reaction, UV, IR, PMR and Mass spectral data. Their mass fragmentation patterns have also been studied.
IMMUNOHAEMATOLOGICAL RESPONSES IN COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT INDIAN MAJOR CARPS AGAINST THE TOXICITY OF MICROCYSTIN – LR
S. Janardana Reddy**, D. C. Reddy and V. Kalarani*
Dept. of Fishery Science and Aquaculture, S.V.University, Tirupati - 517 502 India
*Dept. of Biotechnology, S.P.M.V.V. Tirupati - 517 502 India
The freshwater bloom forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis aerguinosa, is known to cause changes in the haematological biomarkers of fish. In the present study the Indian major carps, Catla and Rohu are exposed to different sublethal concentrations (20 µg, 40 µg, 60 µg) of microcystin-LR for 3, 7 and 15 day period. Haematological and serum parameters which are considered as immuno-modulatory biomarkers, were tested to assess immunocompetence of major carps in response to different sublethal concentrations of microcystin-LR. Haematological parameters such as haemoglobin, total erythrocyte and leucocyte counts appeared depressed on day 3 of exposure where as found to be elevated on 7 and 15 day periods, compared to their respective control groups. Serum protein, albumin and globulin were affected and showed pertinent variations. The results also showed that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents increased significantly with increase in exposure period. Contrarily, glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities showed a significant decrement. However, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione perioxide (GSH-Px) increased significantly in all exposure periods. The results indicate that microcystine-LR induced immunosupperssion and antioxidant enzymes might play important roles in eliminating the excessively formed reactive oxygen species in Indian major carps under microcystine stress.
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF PSEUDARTHRIA VISCIDA L.
*Karuna Priyadarsini U, **Pravin N. Khatale, ***Vijaya Bhaskaran M. and
*S. Mohana Lakshmi
*Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Sree Sainath Nagar, Tirupathi-517501, A.P., India
**Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, SGSPS Institute of Pharmacy, Akola- 444 004,
***J.K.K Natraja College of Pharmacy, Komarapalyam, Tamil Nadu, India
The present study was undertaken to investigate the preliminary phytochemicals and to screen the analgesic effect of the ethanol extract of roots of Pseudarthria viscida (EPV). The study revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins and proteins in the EPV. The analgesic activity of the extract was studied in albino mice by subjecting the mice to noxious stimuli i.e. exposing tip of the tail to radiant heat analgesiometer, and by acetic acid induced writhing method. The treatment of animals with doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg of EPV, p.o. produced a significant and dose dependent inhibition of pain in acetic acid induced writhing reflex in mice. EPV did not show significant analgesic effect in tail flick method. Hence it is concluded that the EPV blocked the pain through peripheral mediated action which was evident from the results obtained in acetic acid induced writhing reflex in mice.
STUDIES ON SOME PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROFILES OF FICUS KRISHNAE.L LEAVES
Karuna Shree R.V.N., Pratyusha S., Mohana Lakshmi S.,
Arun Rasheed and Ashok Kumar C.K.
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Sree Sainath Nagar,
Tirupati- 517 502. A.P., India, E.mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A preliminary pharmacognostic study on the petroleum ether (60 – 80˚C) extract of the plant, Ficus krishnae (Moraceae) revealed some pharmacognostical parameters. The macroscopic and microscopic characters , extractive values, fluorescence characters under ultraviolet light, physical constant values and behavior of the powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents was also performed.
STUDIES ON SOME PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROFILES OF PERGULARIA DAEMIA L.
Kiran P., Kiran Kumar R., Ramadoss S., Purushothaman M. and Ashok Kumar C.K
Sri Lakshmi Narasimha College of Pharmacy, Palluru, Chittor-517132.India
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Sree Sainath Nagar, Tirupati-517102.
The powdered leaves of Pergularia daemia Linn. belonging to the family Asclepiadaceae were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Physical standards of leaf powder were determined which includes moisture content and ash values. Preliminary phytochemical screening on methanol extract of the leaves was performed. The chemical standards were also determined which includes behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents, fluorescence characters under Ultraviolet light after treatment with different chemical reagents on the powdered leaves to fix some pharmacognostical parameters of the plant.
AMELIORATING POTENTIAL OF POMEGRANATE FRUIT EXTRACT AGAINST ADRIAMYCIN INDUCED CARDIOTOXICITY
IN CHICK EMBRYOS
Krishna Kishore, R, Sudhakar.Desineni, and P.R. Parthasarathy
Dept. of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati
The present investigation is an attempt to evaluate the ameliorative effect of pomegranate fruit extract on adriamycin induced cardiotoxicity in chick embryos. Adriamycin, a chemotherapeutic drug commonly used for the treatment of variety of tumors including solid and haemopoietic malignancies, but its prolonged use is limited by an irreversible, dose dependant and progressive cardiomyopathy in human beings due to oxidative stress. Pomegranates were known as the "fruit of antioxidants" having antioxidant capacity higher than that of red wine and green tea..In the present study a group of 12th day old chick embryos were divided equally and randomly into three groups viz I, II and III. Group I served as a control, Group II inoculated with a dose rate of adriamycin (70µg) and Group III received pomegranate fruit extract at a dose (200µg) 6hours prior to adriamycin treatment. The body weight, biochemical and histopathological changes were studied after 24 and 48hours of incubation analysis in a dose versus time dependant manner. These increased malformations and biochemical parameters the toxicity to the cardiac tissue caused by adriamycin in chick embryos. Administration of pretreatment of pomegranate fruit extract brought about a significant reduction in all these parameters, which suggest its cardioprotective role against adriamyc in induced oxidative stress in chick embryonic system. It can be concluded from the present study that pre administration of pomegranate fruit extract has ameliorating effect in minimizing histopathological damage and restoring altered biochemical variables against adriamycin induced cardiotoxicity in chick embryos.
PHENYTOIN- HERBAL INTERACTION
Madhavi, M, Veena, G., Latha, P and Santh Rani Thaakur*
Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, S.P.M University, Tirupati.India.
Many medicinal herbs and Pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Interaction between herbs and drugs may decrease the therapeutic efficacy or increase the toxicological effects of either component. When Physicians use several drugs concurrently, they need to know whether a specific combination has the potential to result in an interaction. If so, advantage can be taken out of the interaction, which leads to improvement in therapy or consequences can be avoided if the interaction is adverse.
Phenytoin, is a widely used anticonvulsant with a narrow therapeutic index, used for the treatment of partial and generalized seizures. Phenytoin uses are limited due to its adverse effects, which include heamatological disorders, ataxia, megaloblastic anemia, cognitive impairment, teratogenicity, oxidative stress induced neuronal damage etc.. Herbal preparations are used as an adjuvant to treat the phenytoin induced adverse effects, but narrow therapeutic index of phenytoin results in phenytoin herbal interactions. Herbal drugs alter the pharmacodyanamic and pharmacokinetic actions of phenytoin. Herbal preparations lowers the seizure threshold, alters bioavailability, elimination and clinical effects of phenytoin. Therefore, understanding the interaction between phenytoin and herbal preparation will help us to know the safety of the use of drugs concurrently.
COMPOSITIONAL STUDIES OF BRAHMADANDI (ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn.) SEED AND ITS PRODUCTS
A. Padmaja, N.B.L.Prasad and V.Pandurangadu
J.N.T.U.Oil Technological Research Institute, Anantapur, A.P.
Brahmadandi (Argemone mexicana Linn.) is commonly known as Mexican Poppy belongs to family Papaveraceae. It is a wild herb and a native of tropical America, has naturalized itself in many countries which offers a moist warm climate. Allover India, it grows as a weed in agricultural fields, waste lands and even in barren mining sites. Its' rich oil bearing seeds are similar to black mustard seeds in size, shape and colour. Practically, there is no difference in appearance between argemone oil and any other semi drying vegetable oil. It is, therefore, the most common adulterant of mustard oil in India. The presence of two physiologically active isoquinoline alkaloids, viz., sanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine imparts highly toxic properties to argemone oil hence it is reported to cause glaucoma, dropsy and sometimes total blindness. However, it is reported that small doses of seed and its oil are used as medicine for treating diarrhoea, dysentery and other external applications respectively. The remaining all parts of brahmadandi plant are used in ayurvedic and unani medicine since time immemorial. This paper describes the medicinal applications of each and every part of the plant and the present study deals with the composition of argemone seeds (grown in Rayalaseema region), their effective separation from mustard seeds, its oil and meal products and also their detoxification methods for better and efficient utilization in diverse fields.
PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND ANTIBACTERIAL STUDY OF PLUMBAGO
Pavan kumar Bellamakondi, 2 Gururaj Chalageri.
Dept of Biotechnology Sri Maata Degree College Hospet. (Dist-Bellary) Karnataka.
Plumbago zeylanica L. is a valuable medicinal herb belongs to the family Plumbaginaceae that has wide application in Ayurvedic system as well as in Folk and Ethnomedicine. The root of P.zeylanica possessing various pharmacological activities, such as antimalarial, antimicrobial. anti cancer, cardiotonic, anti-fertility action, hypoglycemic activity and anti inflammatory and it also reduces serum total cholesterols and triglyceride levels. A study was carried out for its pharmcognostic and antibacterial activity. For the study, plants were collected near the bank of Tungabhadra River at Hampi and shade dried prior to use. The shade dried roots were sel0020 vgected for further work. The dried roots were subjected for pharmacognostic study which involves percentage extractives, ash, moisture content, fluorescence analysis to standardize the quality control in the preparation of medicines in various indigenous systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani etc. For fluorescent and ash study collected sample was compared with the market sample from the shop. For antimicrobial activity, the roots were subjected for soxhelet extraction and the obtained crude methanolic extract was tested against three bacterial strains by using cup plate method and compared with the standard. For pharmacognostic study it was found that the percentage of ash values for both natural, market found to be 6.1%, 3.9% respectively. Moisture content 49.86%, antibacterial study was found to be significant when compared to standards.
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON SEMEN HIPPOCASTANI SEEDS
A.Venu, Sunil Porika, P.V.B.S.Narayana, S.Rajeesha and V.Bhavani.
Samuel George Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Markapur, AP, India.
Semen Hippocastani consists of the dried ripe seeds of Aescu/us hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae) used in the treatment of coronary heart disease, bacillary dysentery and fevers, and also used as a haemostat for excessive menstrual or other gynaecological bleeding, and as a tonic. The fresh seed was studied for pharmacognostic evalution including examination of morphological and microscopic characters, determination of chemical constituents, ash values carried out. The morphological studies revealed the seed was shiny dark brown colour with slight odour and bitter, acrid taste, shape globulous or ovoid, 2-4 em in diameter. In the microscopic studies, the seed envelope made up of polygonal cells radially oriented in a transverse section of the seed. Underneath the envelope are numerous layers of sclerenchyma cells with dense, roughly mottled, yellowish-brown thick walls; loose parenchyma, colourless, consisting of a few layers of cells, with rigid walls; sparse annulate or spiral vessels. Tissue of the cotyledons made up of cells with thin, colourless walls, full of starch and lipids. The present findings will enable pharmacognostical standardization of the plant material to the future investigators.
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF
SCOPARIA DULCIS LINN.
S.H.K.R.Prasad1, B.Raj Sekhar, M.Sunny James, N.L.Swapna and Madan Prasad2
St.Ann's College For Women1, A.N.University, Guntur, A.P, India.Hindu College of Pharmacy, A.N.University, Guntur, A.P, India.Dept. of Biotechnology2 , R.P.S.College, Magadh University, Patna City, Bihar, India.
Successive hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of aerial parts of Scoparia dulcis Linn. were tested for the phytochemical constituents antibacterial antifungal activity .Column chromatography of hexane extract gave a compound, which was characterized as β-sitosterol. Chloroform and methanol extracts in combination gave three compounds which were characterized as ursolic acid, betulinic acid and scutellarein.The three solvent extracts were tested against different microorganisms such as Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaricus, Staphylococcus aureus, Sachromyces cervacea, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus welchii. The three extract residues showed antibacterial activity against all the test bacteria and less activity against Sachromyces cervacea and Candida albicans and did not show any activity against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus welchii. Inhibitory activities were comparable with the respective controls and standards.
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CAPPARIS ZEYLANICA ROOT BARK
Ramya Kuber B* and Santh Rani Thaakur
Dept. of Pharmacognosy and Pharmacology,
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, S.P.M.V.V. Tirupathi-2, A.P.
The aim of the study was to evaluate neuropharmacological activities of the alcoholic extract of Capparis zeylanica (CZ). The ethanolic extract was given at a dose of 50, 100, 200, mg/kg. Spontaneous motor activity, hot plate latency analgesia, grip strength, forced swimming, alertness, tail suspension activity and potentiation of pentobarbitone sleeping time were analyzed. The extract at given doses significantly dose dependently prolonged pentobarbotione induced sleeping time, decreased exploratory activity and spontaneous motor activity and did not alter other parameters. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of sterols, alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponnins and flavonoids. The results of the present study indicated that the alcoholic extract may have active constituents with CNS depressant activity and at the given doses they are devoid of memory impairment and neurotoxicity.
EFFECT OF AEGLE MARMELOS ON ENDOTHELIAL INDUCED NITRIC OXIDE AND C-REACTIVE PROTEIN LEVELS IN ISOPROTERENOL – RAT MODEL
*G. Saayi Krushna M. Abdul Kareem, KS. Sailaja, S. Altaf and K. Lakshmi Devi
Dept. of Biochemistry, S.K.University, Anantapur-515 003, India.
*Dayananda Sagar College of Biological Sciences,Kumaraswamy Layout, Bangalore,
A number of epidemiological studies indicate that consumption of dietary polyphenolic compounds is beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. An attempt was made to know the cardioprotective effect of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit which is rich in polyphenolic compounds. Phytochemical analysis of AMUFAEt indicates the presence of xanthones and polyphenolic compounds. Oral pre-treatment with Aegle marmelos unripe fruit aequeous extract (AMUFAEt, 200mg Kg-1 day-1 for 40 days) significantly prevented the isoproterenol (IPL) induced myocardial infarction by inducing endothelial dependent nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS) and inhibiting CRP levels. It reveals that AMUFAEt contains pytochemicals, effectively prevent cardiac problems by acting as antioxidant and antiatherogenic.
Azeez S.A, T. Sai Mithra, S .Santi Kumar and Jagadeesh Chandra Prasad
S.I.M.S. College of Pharmacy, Mangaldas Nagar, Guntur
E mail: email@example.com
The present paper reviews the utility of saffron being widely used as traditional medicine during pregnancy for the development of fairness in infants. Saffron is used widely for flavoring food and as a dye for cloth, which it continues to be used for in underdeveloped countries and among back-to-basics artisans. Folkloric uses of saffron included its use as a sedative, expectorant, aphrodisiac, and diaphoretic. Anecdotal reports from the tropical regions of Asia describe the use of a paste composed of sandalwood and saffron as a soothing balm for dry skin and is taken orally in disproportianate amounts repeatedly with milk so that it may induce fairness in the new borns .The studies examining the efficacy of saffron therefore needs to be assessed so as to curb the irrational use of saffron. A good general rule during pregnancy is not to use anything other than simple foods and nutritive herbs unless the action of the substance on the uterus and fetus is known. In India there is a greater usage of saffron during pregnancy in order to have a healthier child birth with respect to the colour complexity. Saffron is not generally associated with toxicity when ingested in culinary amounts. But in the case of higher doses it may lead to the negative drown. Saffron being an emmenagogue [menstrual promoter] is to be avoided, especially in high doses, in early pregnancy and in those who are prone to miscarry. Large amounts have uterine stimulant and abortive effects. Saffron may induce abortion, hence pregnant women should not take it in large doses. Saffron bulbs are toxic to young animals and stigmas in overdose are narcotic. These herbs which prevent the implantation of a fertilized egg do so safely and relatively painlessly by making the endometrium unsuitable for the growth of the embryo. They are taken before or after the unprotected fertilizing intercourse. Positive results are indicated by a normal menstrual flow at the normal time. Women say that when they have used these herbs their flow has been somewhat heavier and has contained more clots than usual, circumstantial evidence of a pregnancy that didn't take. This present paper concludes with strong scientific evidence that saffron, called as the magical herb in the rural areas for its folkloric uses have confined and restricted uses. This review calls for the proper awareness and invites the role of non governmental organizations and drug regulatory authorities in curbing the irrational use in the sale and distribution of saffron.
PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS SOLVENT FRACTIONS OF SCOPARIA DULCIS L AGAINST ACUTE LIVER DAMAGE IN RATS
S. Sathesh Kumar, B. Ravi Kumar and G. Krishna Mohan
University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506009,
The Plant Scoparia dulcis L, family Schrophulariaceae is a weed spread on the rice field in south India. The tribal of Bihar (India) uses this plant along with yoghurt to treat jaundice. The methanolic extract of the plant was obtained by maceration and dried under reduced pressure. The methanolic extract of S. dulcis was dispersed in distilled water and further fractionated with solvents of varying polarity like toluene, ethyl acetate, butanone and butanol. The aqueous residue was also collected and dried under reduced pressure. Acute toxicity studies of the fractions were carried out in Swiss albino mice and the LD50 values were obtained. A safe and effective dose level (100mg/kg b.w.p.o) was fixed on the basis of toxicity studies. The hepatoprotective activity of various solvent fractions were evaluated in rats by pre-treatment of the fractions at a dose level of 100mg/kg for 7 days followed by treatment with a single dose of carbon tetrachloride(0.3 ml/kg of CCl4 dissolved in 1:1 ratio in olive oil by subcutaneous route) on the 7th day for inducing acute liver damage.. The blood was withdrawn 24 hrs after the administration of last dose under anaesthesia using thiopentone sodium (35 mg/kg b.w.i.p). The blood was allowed to stand for 30 min at room temperature and then centrifuged to separate the serum. The separated serum is analysed for various biochemical parameters like alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB), albumin (ALB) and total protein (TP) levels. The liver was isolated and histopathological studies were carried out by staining the thin sections with haematoxylin-eosingm%) and TP(0.55±0.14gm%) levels. Among the various groups of animals pre-treated with fractions, the butanone fraction pretreated group at a dose level of 100mg/kg b.w.p.o. had significantly (P<0.001) controlled the AST (58.45±4.02IU/l), ALT (70.00±3.77IU/l), ALP (70.37±6.34KA/dl) and TB (0.71±0.16mg/dl) levels when compared with the toxic group. The TP (3.23±0.55 gm%) and ALB (1.60±0.12gm%) levels were significantly (P<0.001) increased in the animals received pre-treatment of the butanone fraction when compared to the toxic group. The protective effect of the butanone fraction. The histopathological studies indicated decreased necrotic zones and minimal hepatocellular degeneration in the animals received pre-treatment of butanone fraction when compared to the liver exposed to CCl4 intoxication alone.
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF PEDILANTHUS TITHYMALOIDES
V.S.Lakshmi, M.Seshanka*, K.Himani Reddy, B.Sandhya,
Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy
Many plants have not yet received the attention of scientific community to explore the pharmacological actions. Pedilanthus tithymaloides, family: Euphorbiaceae is one such ornamental plants, the latex from stem and leaves is used as irritant, caustic and for venereal diseases. Proteolytic enzyme pedilanthin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. In this , we have reported the preliminary phytochemical investigations and pharmacological actions of Pedilanthus tithymaloides leaf extracts. Albino rats and albino mice were used. The dried leaves were defatted with petroleum ether, then with chloroform, absolute alcohol (95%) using soxhlet extractor. After this aqueous extract was prepared by maceration process. The solvent was distilled off and concentrated. The petroleum ether, chloroform, alcoholic and aqueous extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical investigation for the identification of phytoconstituents: sterols, triterpenes, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, proteins. Spontaneous motor activity: Albino mice were randomly divided in to 7 groups. First group served as control for petroleum ether and choloform extracts. Second, third, fourth and fifth groups received petroleum ether extracts and sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth groups received chloroform extracts. Similarly another seven groups were selected. First served as control. Second, third, fourth and fifth groups received alcoholic and the rest received aqueous extract. They were placed individually in actophotometer for 1 min and basal activity score was taken. Then extracts were administered and scores were again recorded at specific intervals. The difference in the activity before and after the drug was noted. Pentobarbitone sleeping time: The extract was administered orally 30 min prior to pentobarbitone sodium and the sleeping time of each mouse was noted and the percentage effect on pentobarbitone sodium induced by the extracts was calculated. Hypoglycemic activity: Albino rats fasted for 18hrs were divided in to 6 groups. Each extract was given orally. Tolbutamide was used as standard reference. Fasting blood glucose levels were estimated, the drugs were administered orally. The blood samples were collected and analysed. The percentage reduction was calculated. Sterols, triterpenes, carbohydrates , flavonoids and tannins were found to be present in leaf extracts. The effect on pentobarbitone sodium induced necrosis showed that all the four extracts potentiated pentobarbitone sodium induced sleeping time. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts significantly reduced blood glucose levels when compared to petroleum ether and chloroform extracts.
ALTERATIONS OF CHOLINERGIC ASPECTS DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIORAL TOLERANCE TO CHLORPYRIFOS AND AZADIRACHTIN TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS
S. Rajendra Prasad*, C. Narasimha Rao, T. Venkatesulu, M. Siva Prasad,
K. Ramesh Babu and P. Jacob Doss,
Dept. of Zoology, S.V. University, Tirupati - 517 502, A.P., India.
Studies on different brain regions where functional deficits should be readily associated and recognized are of importance for a fuller understanding of the toxic actions of pesticides. The functions of brain regions also significantly vary from each other. In view of this, a study of the response of different brain regions to synthetic and bio-pesticides toxicity during the development of tolerance would be worth while. Hence in the present study the changes in the AChE and BuChE activities, and the content of ACh in different brain regions of the albino rat were examined during the development of behavioral tolerance to organophosphate compound chlorpyrifos and azadirachtin. After the administration of chlorpyrifos and azadirachtin as single double and multiple doses with an interval of 48 hrs, even though the animals were behaviorally tolerated, the inhibitory activity of cholinergic aspects (AChE, BuChE) and elevated trend of ACh were not recovered towards controls. When compared with chlorpyrifos treated animals the recovery rate was higher in azadirachtin administered animals. The results indicate the biocides are better instead of OP compounds on long run usage.
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL,PHYTOCHEMLCAL SCREENING AND ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA
S. Abdul Althaf, B., Nageshw Ariah, P .Vijay Kumar, M. Venkata Rao
Dept of Biochemistry, M. Pharmacy, S.V.University, Tirupati - 517 502.
Leaf Acyranthes aspera L. was used for epilepsy, traditionally, by some tribal people of Chittoor district. An attempt was taken to study the pharmacognostic feature and preliminary phytochemical screening of the Acyranthes aspera leaf. The quantitative data for the leaf and physical constants were determined. The preliminary phytochemical screening reveals the presence of saponins, glycosides, steroids, and tannins. The ethanolic extract of Acyranthes aspera linn. (leaf) was administered (30 mglkg) orally to (MES) maximal electric shock seizure induced rats. The effect was compared with phenytoin as a standard and distilled water as control. The extract was given for a period of 10 days. The extract showed a significant (65%) protection against MES induced convulsions. The anticonvulsant activity of Acyranthes aspera has been found to be effective along with standard drug (Phenytoin). This finding suggests that the leaf of Acyranthes aspera posses anticonvulsant activity particularly against MES induced convulsions by abolishing extensor phase. Moreover, the potentiation of phenytoin may be increased by Acyranthes aspera. The possible mechanisms by which the leaf acts and potentiates the standard drug are also been discussed. and also the possible structure of the active chemical entity is also hypothesized. Phenytoin is known to cause liver failure on long term usage as a anticonvulsant. So, it finds usefulness as an adjuvant therapy with the standard anti convulsant drugs which can possibly lower the requirement of conventional drugs.
SECONDARY METABOLITE PRODUCTION AND ORGANOGENESIS FROM ADHATODA VASIKA
K.Shalaka, P.Sandhya and G. Nikita.
S.V.B's College of Pharmacy, Dombivli 421203; Dist.-Thane.
Adhatoda vasika (family: Acanthaceae) commonly known as vasaka has been used in traditional system of medicine for several respiratory tract ailments. Vasicine and vasicinone are the important alkaloids of vasaka having bronchodilatory and expectorant effect. In the present study we have tried to develop callus cultures of vasaka from leaf, petiole and nodes by using different plant growth regulator (PGR) combinations. The best PGR combination in terms of biomass, bioactive secondary metabolite and repeatability to induce callus was determined. Secondary metabolite recovered from callus was confirmed with the standard by using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. MS medium fortified with NAA in the range of 1.2µM to 10.7µM; 6BA in the range of 2 .2µM to 4.4µM; 2,4D from 4.5µM to 13.5µM and kinetin from 2.3µM to 4.6µM were studied. MS medium prepared with 10.7µm NAA and 2 .2µm 6BA showed 90% repeatability to induce callus on 7th day of inoculation with 32% secondary metabolite accumulation. An attempt to increase secondary metabolite concentration using cell suspension culture has been tried and a rise in alkaloidal content from 0.009 mg/ml to 0.036 mg/ml was obtained in a period of one month. Organogenesis was established through both de nova origin of callus and adventitious type from explant. The best PGR combination for shoot initiation by direct organogenesis was established by lowering the auxin and increasing the cytokinin concentration. Invitro root initiation by de nova callus technique was also established for vasaka. The result of study reveals that the developed callus, shoot and root invitro cultures can be used as alternative source for production of vasaka alkaloids of pharmaceutical interest.
PHARMACOGNOSY OF ROSTELLULARIA PROCUMBENS (L.)
NEES. VAR. SIMPLEX (D.DON) YAMASAKI
B. Jyothi, G. Sudarsanam* and N. Nagaraju**
*Department Of Botany, S.V.University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.
**Department Of Botany, S.G.S. Arts College, Tirupati, A.P., India.
Rostellularia procumbens (L.) Nees. var simplex (D. Don) Yamasaki (Acanthaceae) is used in Ayurveda for the treatment of asthma, cough, rheumatism, backache and lumbago. It is also considered as laxative, diuretic, anthelmintic and febrifuge. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies are taken up for the first time, macroscopical, microscopical characters of root, stem and leaves are carried out. The root section showed long cylindrical vessel elements and thick walled fibres, stem revealed cystoliths, narrow thick walled fibres, and leaf with two types of glandular trichoms, cystoliths and diacytic type of stomata. Fluorescence analysis of powdered plant material showed green, yellowish green, pale green, olive green and dark green. Total ash value was 15.47%, water soluble ash 4.7%, acid insoluble' ash 1.14%, qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, quinones, phenols, proteins, carbohydrates, lignans and anthocyanidins. The observations made are presented in this paper for the first time and will be discussed.
PROTECTIVE ROLE OF GINGER ETHANOLIC EXTRACT ON KIDNEY LIPID METABOLIC PROFILES IN STZ-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS.
Shanmugam.K.R, Ramakrishna Narasimhulu. G, Lavanya. T, Sathyavelu Reddy.K*
Dept. of Zoology, S.V. Univeristy, Tirupati, A. P.
Diabetes is the single most important health disorder, widely recognized as one of the leading causes of death and disability world wide. Now a days herbal medicines are quite oftenly used to cure diabetes. Among them Gymnema, Stevia and ginger etc. in the present study, oxidative stress in diabetic model and the effect of ginger ethanolic extract treatment were examined, Streptozotocin (50mg/kg body weight)induce diabetic rats showed a significant increase in kidney MDA, triglyceride, total cholesterol levels. Treatment of diabetic rats with ginger (200mg/kg) for 30 days significantly decreased MDA, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. The results suggest that ginger may effectively normalize the impaired lipid metabolic profiles status in STZ induced diabetes. The effects of ginger antioxidants mat be useful in delaying the complicated effects of diabetes as nephropathy and neuropathy due to imbalance between free radicals and antioxidant systems. Moreover, ginger may be more powerful free radical scavenger.
EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF DRIED LEAVES OF HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES L. IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS.
Shashikanth.P, D. Sowmyareddy*, I.Sivaharika,P.Neeha and V.Navitha.
Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh.
Leaves of hippophae rhamnoides (Hr), commony known as seabuckthorn, a plant native of china and Russia was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against carbontetrachloride induced hepatic damage in albino rats. The hepatoprotective activity of Hr was evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase(SGPT), alkaline phosphatase(ALP) and acid phosphatase(ACP). The serum levels of total proteins and bilirubin were also estimated. The histological studies were also carried out to support the above parameters. Silymarin was used as a standard drug. Administration of Hr (100 and 300 mg/kg, s.c) markedely prevented carbon tetra chloride induced elevated levels of serum GPT,GOT,ACP,ALP and bilirubin. The decreased level of total proteins due to hepatic damage induced by carbontetrachloride was found to be increased in Hr treated groups. The results are comparable to that of silymarin. A comparative histopathological study of liver exhibited almost normal architecture, as compared to carbontetrachloride treated groups. Hepato protective action of leaves of Hr is probably due to combined actions of all ingredients. The Aq Hr showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids, saponins and triterpines while alkaloids, carbohydrates and saponins are present with MeHr. The AqHr did not produce mortality even at 5000mg/kg, while LD50 of MeHr was found to be 3500 mg/kg. pretreatment with AqHr and MeHr extract significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological and functional changes induced by carbontetrachloride in liver. The present study indicates that AqHr and MeHr extracts possessed hepatoprotective activity. The Methonolic extract was found to exhibit greater hepato protective activity than the Aqueous extract.
AQUEOUS ROOT EXTRACT OF RUBIA CORDIFOLIA PARTIALLY ATTENUATES STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN GLYCOGEN CONTENT AND CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN RATS
R. Baskar, S. Sreenivasa Reddy and D. Saralakumari
Dept. of Biochemistry, S.K.University, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
The effect of oral administration of aqueous root extract of Rubia cordifolia (RCAREt) for 8 weeks (1g/kg/day) on glycogen and key enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were studied in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The decreased glycogen content (liver and muscle); increased hepatic glycogen phosphorylase activity; decreased activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase in liver and skeletal muscle); hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and increased activities of gluconeogenic enzymes (fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase in liver and kidney) were observed during diabetes. These metabolic abnormalities were significantly restored to near normal values in RCAREt treated diabetic rats. The biochemical effect exerted by RCAREt demonstrates the therapeutic role as antidiabetic agents.
DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDISATION OF HERBAL FORMULATION FOR SOME CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
V. S. Sri Ramya, A. Hanumanth Reddy and T.Sunil Krishna
Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Dhulapally, Hyderabad.
Evolvulus alsinoides, Convolvulus pluricaulis, Centella asiatica and Bacopa monnieri are important traditional drug in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicine. The methanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides and Convolvuluspluricaulis showed a significant improvement in learning and memory in the shuttle box paradigms. Earlier reports have shown that a number of natural drugs which improve cognition , also have antioxidant properties. Therefore considering the antioxidant efficiency involved in the CNS activity, the most active methanolic extracts of each drug subjected for investigation on invitro antioxidant activity. Three invitro tests, the DPPH radical scavenging action , hydroxyl scavenging and the lipid peroxidation assay for antioxidant activity were used to assess the antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of each plant. Together all the three tests provide a better assessment of antioxidant properties. The phytochemical investigation of Evolvulus alsinoides and Convolvulus pluricaulis has resulted in isolation, identification and estimation of two pentacyclic triterpinoids coded EA1 and CP1 respectively. Polyherbal formulation were prepared with different compositions of four selected drugs.A simple and precise method has been developed for qualification of EA1 and CP1 in extract as well as in formulations. The stability was studied for the period of three months. The different parameters such as nature, colour, odour, texture were studied for tablet formulations whereas pH, colour, odour and nature were studied for syrup formulations. The present investigations result standardized and reproducible polyherbal formulation for Central Nervous System activity.
MEDICINAL PLANTS INNOVATION IN PHARMACOLOGY
B.R.Suhaas and D.Yaswanth Kumar
Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla, A.P.
Medicinal plants,the booming field in pharmacological research is helping scientists to explore the new and existing plants useful in treatment of several pathologies.Emphasis is laid on some aspects of pharmacological innovations where medicinal plants are used. To find new and effective treatment of neuro-degenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease.Galanthamine, a tertiary alkaloid isolated from amarillidaceae species is one of the natural product used in its treatment. Natural products even play a vital role in discovery of new drugs like Lignanus of Podofile, Camptotheca acuminata (Nyssaceae) alkaloids, and diterpens of Pacific's Tejo (Taxus brevifolia) which have anti-cancer activity. Anthraquinones, natural products usually used as laxatives show interesting action on some cellular mediators in the inflammatory process, such as in rheumatoid arthritis. Marine habitat should also be mentioned as it is an important source of products with potential therapeutic effects.
HYPOGLYCEMIC AND ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA NORMAL AND ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS.
V. Swaroopa Rani*, P. Goverdhan, M. Sandhya Rani,
B. Ravi Kumar and G. Krishna Mohan
College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh
The roots of Aristolochia indica is used in indigenous system of medicines as a antidote for the snake bites, gastric stimulant, bitter tonic. Among the tribal inhabitants, the roots are ground with black pepper seeds and made into pills administered to treat rheumatism, diabetes. Though the plant has been used in the folklore medicine extensively, but no scientific evidence for such activities is available in established scientific journals of repute. Keeping this in view, the present study has been undertaken to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of methanolic extract of root of Aristolochia indica in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The A. indica shows a dose dependent hypoglycemic effect and prevented rise in blood glucose levels in normal rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 1,2,4,6 and 8 h after the treatment. The alcoholic extract of A. indica at a doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the blood glucose levels of the normal rat from 94.55 19.14 to 74.71 13.64 mg/dl, 113.51 14.78 to 82.65 12.09 mg/dl, at 6 h after oral administration of the extract (P<0.05) and also significantly lowered blood glucose levels in alloxan induced diabetic rats from 429.90 10.4 to 305.34 10.94mg/dl respectively at 6 h after oral administration of the 400 mg/kg body weight extract (P<0.05). The antihyperglycemic activity of A. indica was compared with Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg), an Oral hypoglycemic agent.
HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF GYMNOPETALUM COCHINCHINENSIS IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN- INDUCED DIABETIC MICE
D.Syiem* and W.Lyngdoh
*Department of Biochemistry, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793 022, India.
Extract of Gymnopetalum cochinchinensis fruit is traditionally used by local practitioners of Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya for various types of ailments including diabetes. The crude aqueous extract of the fruits was tested for its hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic study in both normal and alloxan- induced diabetic mice. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity was observed to be dose-and time-dependent. The extracts reduced blood glucose level 2 h following administration in both normal and alloxan- induced diabetic mice. In alloxan- induced diabetic mice, blood glucose was markedly reduced to 56% from that of control at 4 h, while in normal mice blood level was 59% from that of control after 4 h following administration of the extract. Maximum reduction was observed at 6 h in alloxan- induced diabetic mice. A prolonged anti-hyperglycemic action was observed even at 24 h in normal mice. Possible mechanisms are discussed.
ANTIINFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC PROPERTIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BAMBUSA VULGARIS LEAVES
William M Carey*, Swaroopa Rani, V., Babu Rao, B.,
Ravi Kumar, B. and Krishna Mohan, G.
University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal, India.
The methanolic extract of the leaves of Bambusa vulgaris was investigated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in animal models. Carrageen an–induced rat paw oedema model was used to assess ant inflammatory activity while acetic acid–induced writhing and hot plate models were used to evaluate the analgesic effect of the extract in mice. The extract exhibited significant (P<0.01) dose – dependent (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) activities. The results of the present study were comparable to those observed for the standard drugs diclofenac sodium and pentazocine. Further, the results substantiate the traditional use of leaves of B.vulgaris in the treatment of painful inflammatory conditions. The results obtained in this study confirm that the methanolic extract of leaves of B.vulgaris possesses a potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity.
PHARMACOGNOSTIC DIAGNOSIS OF PROSOPIS CINERARIA (L). DRUCE and PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (SW). DC. (MIMOSACEAE)
U.Yasmin Stella1 and N.Narayanan2
1Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Maharaja College of Pharmacy, Chennai.
2Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Madras Medical College, Chennai.
The Sacred tree, Prosopis cineraria (L) Druce (syn. Prosopis spicigera Linn., and Mimosa cineraria Linn.,) belongs to the family Mimosaceae. This species is found throughout India extending to Persia. The tree is known as Vanni, jambu in Tamil; Jand, Khejra in Hindi and Shami in Sanskrit. The whole plant is used in the Indigenous system of Medicine. It is also considered to be a Kalpa tree in Ayurveda and Siddha medicine. The medicinal properties of the tree include leprosy, bronchitis, asthma, leucoderma, piles, tremors of muscles, remedy for rheumatism and anti-cancer activity. Chemical constituents isolated from the tree include Spicigerine, Prosogerins A, B, C, D, E (Flavones) etc. Prosopis cineraria is restricted in availability whereas Prosopis juliflora is widely distributed and abundantly available. P. cineraria and P. juliflora share several common features, especially with reference to foliar morphology. In both the species, the leaves are bipinnate, pinnae one or two pairs and leaflets are 15-18 pairs. These two species can be easily confused and to distinguish one from the other may be little difficult. The Present study provides microscopic features of the leaflets, rachis and young stem of P. cineraria and P. juliflora. The diagnostic features of the two species are highlighted which can be readily employed to key out the two species.
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF CRINUM ASIATICUM, RHINACANTHUS NASUTUS AND ANACYCLUS PYRETHRUM
Madhanrai,P, * Prabakaran,M,* Thennarasu,V, Senthilkumar,G.and Anneerselvam,A.
A.V.V. M. Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur.
* Sri Gowri Biotech Research Academy, Nagai Road, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu.
The present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of selected medicinal plants belonging to the members of the family Amaryllidaceae, Acanthaceae and Asteraceae. The plants were collected from Sri Gowri Biotech Medicinal Garden at Thanjavur District, was evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Aqueous, ethanol, dimethyl formide solvents used for antimicrobial properties against three bacteria and three fungus and also compared with normal antibiotics. The Biochemical constituents were screened by Thin Layer chromatography and the results were discussed.
STUDIES ON SOME PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROFILES OF VENTILAGO MADRASAPATANA GAERTN. LEAVES
Sirisha A., Sivakranth M., Mohana Lakshmi S.,
Nageswara Rao T.* and Ashok Kumar C.K.
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Tirupati - 517 502,.A P, India
*Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata. India
A preliminary pharmacognostic study has been done on the methanol extract of the plant, Ventilago madrasapatana Gaertn. (Rhamnaceae). Our study confirmed some pharmacognostical profiles like macroscopic and microscopic characters, extractive values, fluorescence characters under ultraviolet light, physical constant values and behaviour of the powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents.
STUDIES ON SOME PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROFILES OF
ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L.
Gayathri. S, Kiran Kalyani, Rahul Nair and Ashok Kumar C.K.
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Sree Sainath Nagar, Tirupathi-517 502.
Erythrina varigata belonging to the family Fabaceae were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Physical standards of various parts of plant were determined which includes moisture content and ash values. Preliminary phytochemical screening on methanol extract of the leaves was performed. The chemical standards were also determined which includes behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents, fluorescence characters under Ultraviolet light after treatment with different chemical reagents on the powdered leaves to fix some pharmacognostical parameters of the plant.
STUDIES ON SOME PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROFILES OF BOERHAVIA DIFFUSA L.
Harish Babu B., P. Sindhuri, Venkatesh S., Venkidesh R. and Ashok Kumar C.K.
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Sree Sainath Nagar, Tirupati-517102.
E.mail. : firstname.lastname@example.org
Boerhavia diffusa belonging to the family Nyctaginaceae were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Physical standards of entire plant powder were determined which includes moisture content and ash values. Preliminary phytochemical screening on methanol extract of the entire plant was performed. The chemical standards were also determined which includes behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents, fluorescence characters under Ultraviolet light after treatment with different chemical reagents on the powdered plant to fix some pharmacognostical parameters.
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO SPERMICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ALBIZZIA LEBBECK ROOTS
Heeshma C.Shah, Medha C. Patel, Pratima. A.Tatke and K.K. Singh
C. U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T. Women's University, Mumbai - 400049.
The world population continues to grow at an alarming rate, with a projected 50% increase in current world population to approximately 9 billion by 2050. Many methods for fertility control are available but there is still a quest for safe and alternative means. In recent years, development of vaginal contraceptives incorporating potent spermicidal agents from plant origin is being explored. The percent extractive value for root extract was found to be 06.46%w/w. The qualitative evaluation of the extract indicated the presence of carbohydrates, gums, phenolic compounds, saponins, alkaloids and flavonoids. HPTLC studies were carried out using n-Butanol: Glacial acetic acid: Water (5:0.5:1) as the mobile phase. The minimum effective concentration at which the sperms showed immobilization was 9mg/ml. All the sperms were non-viable at the end of 20 secs. Albizzia lebbeck roots extract exhibited good spermicidal activity and has good potential to be explored further as a vaginal contraceptive, which will be a safe alternative to the currently available synthetic hormone, based contraceptives.
COMPARITIVE EVALUATION OF PLANT EXTRACTS AND PHYTOCHEMICALS OF RUBIA CORDIFOLIA, GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA AND PIPER LONGUM, ALONE AND IN COMBINATION FOR THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY ON DRUG RESISTANT HUMAN PATHOGENS
Latha P, Veena G, Madhavi, M and Santh Rani Thaakur*
Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, SPM University, Tirupati, India.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effects of plant extracts and phytochemicals on standard microorganism strains as well as multi-drug resistant bacteria, which were isolated from hospitals. The plants used in this study are Rubia cordifolia, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Piper longum. These plants individually have antimicrobial activity. The main aim of this study is to evaluate plant extracts and phytochemicals, for their antimicrobial activity in combination which can be of great signifinance in therapeutic treatments. The extracts used in this study are aqueous, ethanolic and methonolic. These extracts were tested against seven different species (Gram positive bacteria namely Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus and four species of Gram negative bacteria namely Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas fluorescence and Escherichia coli) of human pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion method. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts were effective against all (seven) species of microorganisms. In this study the combined effect of extract obtained from piper longum and rubia cordifolia showed suscpetibiltiy towards all the species used in this study. Similar result was obtained when the organism was subjected to the a combination of glycyrrhiza glabra and Rubia cordifolia.The results of the present study indicate that plant extracts in combination act as better anti microbial agents as compared to individual agents.
PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS
G. Anitha, J. Kamakshamma, G. Prasad Babu and G. Sudarsanam
Division of Medicinal Plants and Microbiology
Department of Botany, S.V.University, Tirupati.
Corallocarpus epigaeus (Indian Bryonia) belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae which is a important medicinal plant curing various ailments used by the herbal practitioners. The pharmacognistic property of any plant due to the presence of chemicals designated as secondary metabolites. The secondary metabolites comprising of Alkaloids, Steroids, Phenolic acids, Phenols, Flavonoids etc. The present investigation deals with qualitative identification of anti coagulant chemicals following ascending paper chromatography comparing with standard Rf values and running authentic samples. Corallocarpus epigaeus known has a wide range of Medicinal uses. The plant is used for curing Ant respiratory disorders, anti cancer property, Anti malarial and powerful Snake bites.
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHNOLIC EXTRACT OF ROOTS OF ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESENS R.Br.
Kamakshamma. J, Prasad Babu. G, G.Anitha and Sudarsanam .G
Division of Medicinal Plants and Microbiology
Department of Botany, S.V .University, Tirupati, India.
Ichnocarpus frutesens is a large ever green laticiferous woody creeper distributed through out India belongs to the family Apocynaceae. The whole plant possesses many medicinal properties diuretic rheumatism, epilepsy and skin problems. A decoction of the root is employed externally for skin problems and ringworm. It is commonly known as sarsaparilla would be classed generally as a blood purifier, the roots possess antidiabetic activity. For antimicrobial activity, the roots were subjected for soxhelet extraction and obtained crude extract was tested against gram negative (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella) and gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) by using a standard paper disc assay method. The results showed that the methanolic extract could strongly inhibit the growth of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria.
PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES AND GC – MS ANALYSIS OF AN ANTI CANCEROUS TREE LEGUME MUNDULEA SERICEA
(WILLD.) A. CHEVAL
Department of Botany, M.A.l.D. Govt Degree College, Gadwal, Mahaboob Nagar
Mundulea sericea: (Fabaceae) popularly known as verribilludu, is used as medicinal plant by tribal people like Koyas, Lambadas, Yerukalas and Chenchus for various ailments. Smooth, non corky bark is a powerfull insecticide and pesticide. Medicinally it is used to cure lung cancer, diabetes, rheumatic fever, arthritis, allergy, protection against radiation injuries, dermatitis and albuminic diseases. Plant derived medicines are gaining importance in modern medicine,. In recent years, a number of studies have been reported dealing with antimicrobial screening of extracts of medicinal plants, chemical composition, bioglocial and therapeutic activities. Hence it is aimed to screen phytochemicals by preliminary phytochemical screening methods and to carry out GC-MS analysis in Mundulea sericea Petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Mundulea sericea have been evaluated for Preliminary phytochemical screening. Flavonoids and quinones were found to be present in all the extracts. Alkaloids in methanol extract and coumarins in petroleum ether extract were reported. The extracts showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial and antibacterial and antifungal activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Mundulea sericea stem bark extracts shown the following results. The yields of Petroleum ether (60-80oC) , Benzene, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Methanol and Water extracts of shade dried bark are 5.5:5.0:4.2:3.8:4.6: and 3.0% respectively. All the extracts showed the presence of flavonoids. GC – MS analysis of the essential oil reveals the quantitative and qualitative percent of the components. The phytochemical screening of crude drug samples revealed the distribution of various groups of secondary derivatives. GC – MS analysis of bark of Mundulea sericea revealed the presence of 23 components. Presents of rotenones, chalcones deguelin, 13 – alpha hydroxy deguelin, 13 – alpha hydroxyl tephrosin, glycocides flavanoids quinones in the stem bark extracts, terpenoides, sesquiterpenoids in the essential oil of the stem bark of Mundulea Sericea, makes the plan a therapeutic cally useful species. The studies indicate that bark extracts can be exploited as an ideal phytochemical for future plant disease management programmes. The results also supported the usage of bark for treating various ailments by the folklore.
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES OF SOME ENDEMIC MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHITTOOR DISTRICT, A.P. INDIA.
A.Sudhakar, C. Ramesh, G. Sudarsanam* and S.Vedavathy
Department of Botany, S.V.Arts College, Tirupati
*Department of Botany, S.V.University, Tirupati
The research on pharmacognostical studies of some endemic plants viz., Boswellia ovalifoliolata Bal.et Henry, Syzigium alternifolium (Wight) Wal. and Pterocarpus santalinus L.f. have been taken up to provide reliable scientific and diagnostic information to identify the species that are medicinally important. The source plant in almost all cases is referred by several names and some of these synonyms are applied to other plants as well, thus leaving selection of the correct plant depending upon ingeuinity, learning or common use. In these circumstances, a study on the endemic medicinal plants of Chittoor district with a pharmacognostical account has been carried out in order to find out adulterations if any has been presented.
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES OF STEMONA TUBEROSA LOUR.
C.Ramesh, G.Sudarsanam* and A. Sudhakar
Department of Botany, S.V.Arts college, Tirupati
*Department of Botany, S.V.University, Tirupati
Stemona tuberosa lour., generally called Anki and the leaves are used to cure night blindness. The tubers are one of the ingredients to improve potency in man. All parts of the plant body have many medicinal virtues in indigenous medicine. A fair amount of chemical work has not been done. Further investigation on different parts of the plant including seed is required to know the importance medicinally and historically. An attempt has been made to study the pharmacognostic details and diagnostic features ofthe drug are described.
FORMULATIONS BY CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES
Sindhu Nair, Supriya Jirge, Dr.Pratima Tatke and S.G.Despande
C. U. Shah College of Pharmacy, SNDT Women's University,
Juhu Campus, Santa Cruz, Mumbai
E mail: email@example.com
Herbal Medicine is a time-tested and valuable resource for healing. In India, the herbal drug market is about $ one billion and the export of plant based crude drugs is around $ 80 million. But the most important challenges faced by these formulations arise because of their lack of complete standardization. A lot of analytical techniques have been developed for renewed for quality control of herbal formulations drugs from plant origin. Chromatographic fingerprinting of phtyoconstituents can be used for the assessment of quality consistency and stability of herbal extracts or products by visible observation and comparison of the standardized fingerprint pattern. Methanolic extracts of capsules and tablets (both the batches) were prepared. Different phytochemical tests were performed and on the bases of the test results, TLC profile and HPTLC fingerprints using silica gel GF254 as stationary phase were developed. Different solvent systems were developed for the detection of different phtyoconstituents. The plates were scanned at 254nm (UV) and 365nm (fluorescence) for the detection of spots and than derivatised with different spraying reagents such as Anisaldehyde - Sulphuric reagent, Dragendroff's reagent, Ferric cholride reagent, Liebermann Buchard reagent etc. The tablet was found to contain alkaloids saponins, triterpenes, tannins, cardiac glycosides. Saponins, flavonoids and sterols were found to be present in capsules. HPTLC fingerprinting and video images of the plates were recorded. The developed HPTLC fingerprints will help the manufacturer for quality control and standardization of herbal formulations.
STUDIES ON ISOLATION AND BIOACTIVITIES OF CYNODON DACTYLON
K. Mallikarjuna Rao and A.V.Badarinath.
Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, New boyanapally, Rajampeta, Kadapa A.P.
In continues search of new bioactivity molecules from the plant sources, we selected Cynodon dactyl on for bioactive moieties being it is widely distributed and its applications for the poor people from the various regions from the ancient time. Cynodon dactylon is commonly available grass with more medicillal uses. Five different constituents were isolated from the crude methanolic extrtact of Cynodon dactylon by column chromatography by using ethyl acetate, n-hexane, solvent system. The Rf values of isolated components are 0.86, 0.58, 0.48, 0.34, 0.26 ... respectively. These are identified and confirmed with HPTLC and TLC analysis.
STEM BARK OF CARICA PAPAYA L. [CARICEACEAE] PHARMACOGNOSTICAL APPRAISAL
Plant Anatomy and Research Center, Sakthi Nagar, W.Tambaram, Chennai
Carica papaya L. of Carieaceae is one of the popular tropical fruit yielding plants, widely used for its nutritive fruit. The fruit has several medicinal properties and the papain content of the plant is attributed to cure many human ailments such as digestive disorders, tonsils, corns and skin defects. The latex sap of the plant contains a complex of proteolytic enzyme, the papain. The latex, though occur in all parts of the plant, the stem portion possesses large quantum of laticifers. Perusal of literature shows that, the pharmacognostic studies are lacking for the stem portion of the plant. The present study deals with the microscopic histological parameters as well as preliminary phytochemical aspects of the stem bank of C. papaya. The stem [trunk] of the plant has thin periderm which exfoliates into thin flakes, wide dilated phloem rays which extend up to the periderm forming pseudocortex, wide undilated rays alternating with thick radial belts of sieve elements and phloem fibers arranged in successive alternating blocks. The phloem rays are extensively wide and high. The sieve tube members are short with conical ends, simple oblique sieve plates and vertical rows of parenchyma cells. The sieve elements are storied as seen in TLS view. Laticifers are abundant in phloem rays. The present study is the first record of the stem bark of C. papaya.
AROMATIC FLOWERS- HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL PERSPECTIVES
N. Parimala and S. Amerjothy
Plant Anatomy Research Centre, Sakthi Nagar, West Tambaram, Chennai
Department of Plants Biology and Plant Biotecnology Presidency College, Chennai
Aroma is one of alluring organoleptic properties of plants. Among different organs of plants, flowers seem to the principal repository of aromatic principles. Herbal aroma is known to humanity for centuries and it appears to be virtually part of every culture. Aroma therapy, though not so popular as other systems of medical practices, is also a primeval approach for dealing with human ailments Aromatic flowers are highly valued in religious, cultural and social arena. However, our knowledge of the structural profile of the flowers wherefrom aromatic principle are emanated is quite meager. In a comprehensive survey of structure and cytochemical localization of aromatic oil in plant a few selected flowers, as mentioned below, have been selected for the present paper. With the help of microtome slides supplemented with suitable photomicrographs, general structure of the aromatic parts, distribution and cellular organization of aromatic tissues and histochemical localization of aromatic oils are elaborated in the presentation.
STUDIES ON EFFECT OF AZOTOBACTER AND PSB ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF STEVIA REBAUDIANA (BERT.)- AN EMERGING NUTRACEUTICAL PLANT.
G. Rama Krishnaiah and T. Vijaya*
Department of Biotechnology, S.V. University, Tirupati
Aztobacter is important free living Nitrogen fixing soil bacteria and PSB have enormous potential in providing soil phosphates for plant growth. Azotobacter provides Nitrogen availability to the plant by fixing atmospheric Nitrogen and increasing the plant growth. PSB can help in increasing the availability of accumulated phosphates for plant growth by solubilization.A pot culture experiment conducted to study the effect of bio-fertilizers on the biomass yield and biochemical aspects of Stevia. The results showed that the biomass and biochemical contents particularly steviol glycosides were increased Steviol glycosides are secondary metabolites synthesized in the leaves of Stevia plant and has great demand as natural sweetener. This content was reached were high level at 65 days crop with dual inoculation rather than individual inoculation. This is due to the increase of biomass by the biofertilizers.
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF FRUITS OF HELICTERES ISORA LINN.
Varun.T1 Uma Maheshwari.J1, Nihar.R1, Saisanthosh.S1, Chetan.C.H1, Karthik.K1, Raju.B,1 Salam Babu.S1 and Balakrishnan.M2.
1St.Jhon College of Pharmacy, Yellapur, Hasanparthy (M), Warangal, A.P., India-39.
2Vagdevi College of Pharmacy, Gurazala, Guntur (D), Andhra Pradesh, India-522 415.
The purpose of this study was to examine phytochemical profile and the diuretic effect of ethanol extract of fruits of Helicteres isora Linn at doses of 50,100,150 mg/kg b.w administered orally in albino rats.The shade dried powder of fruits of Helicteres isora was subjected to extraction using the 90% ethanol as solvent. Thus prepared extracts were subjected to the preliminary phytochemical analysis. Acute toxicity studies were conducted on mice using the method of Weil and the LD50 was determined. The diuretic potential of 90% ethanolic extract of the leaves at the doses of 50,100 and 150 mg/kg b.w administered orally was assessed comparable with the standard drug furosemide (100 mg/kg) in albino rats. The Volume of urine, urinary concentration of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and Chloride (Cl-) ions were the parameters of the study. The 90% ethanolic extract (150 mg/kg) has shown significant increase in the volume of urine, urinary concentration of Na+, K+ and Cl- ions. However 100mg/kg dose has not increased the volume of urine and urinary concentration of chloride, but significantly elevated the urinary levels of Na+ and K+ ions. From the present study it may be concluded that the 90% ethanolic extract of Helicteres isora fruits possess natriuretic and diuretic activities.
ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF FICUS BENGHALENSIS LINN AGAINST ACNE-INDUCING BACTERIA
R.Dhanapal1, Ashok Kumar C.K.,2 N. Narayanan3 and Rahul Nair2.
1St.John College of Pharmacy, Yellapur, Hasanparthy (M), Warangal, A.P.,India-506 039.
2Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, A.Rangampet, Tirupathi, A.P.,India-517 102.
3Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chennai Medical College, Chennai, T. Nadu, India- 600 003,
The objective of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial activities of an Indian medicinal plant against two acne-inducing bacteria, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis which have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. Ethanolic extract of Aerial roots of Ficus benghalensis Linn (Moraceae) was tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion method showed that extract could strongly inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes. Based on a broth dilution method, the extract had the greatest antimicrobial effect. The MIC values were the same (0.046 mg/ml) for both bacterial species and the MBC values were 0.046 and 0.162 mg/ml against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. In bioautography assay, the extract produced strong inhibition zones against Propionibacterium acnes. Phytochemical screening of aerial roots of Ficus benghalensis revealed the presence of saponins and flavonoids alkaloid which could be responsible for activity. The data of this study indicated that aerial root of Ficus benghalensis had a strong inhibitory effect on Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis.
STUDIES ON ANTIUROLITHIATIC EFFECT OF LEAVES OF ABUTILON INDICUM G. DON. IN MALE ALBINO RATS
Uma Maheshwari J. Spoorthy.V, Swetha.B, Soumya.
T, Shalini.B, Deepthi.V, and Mounika.G.
St.John College of Pharmacy, Yellapur, Hasanparthy (M), Warangal, AP, India-506 039.
The present study was carried out to evaluate ethanol extract of leaves of Abutilon indicum G.Don. for the possible antiurolithiatic activity in male albino rats against hydroxyproline induced hyperoxaluria and hypercalciuria. Following an intraperitoneal injection of hydroxyproline, the urinary levels of oxalate increased, accompanied by an increase in calcium. Simultaneously, extract of leaves of Abutilon indicum G.Don. were evaluated further to see the dose dependent effect at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg p.o. dose levels against hydroxyproline induced hyperoxaluria and hypercalciuria in male albino rats. At tested doses extract of A indicum showed 38, 65 and 83% protection against hyperoxaluria and 26, 48 and 93% protection against hypercalciuria respectively. This indicated a dose dependent response of the extract. The findings of the study show that A indicum possessed promising antihyperoxaluric and antihypercalciuric activity indicating the possible antiurolithiatic activity.
EVALUATION OF ANTI-LICE ACTIVITY FROM HERBAL DRUGS AND ITS FORMULATION
K V Gopinath, B Umamahesh, M Raghavendra, D Munilaxmi and T Pushpalatha*
Department of Pharmacy, S V University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh-517 502, India.
*College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University,
Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763, South Korea.
The head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis (Family: Pediculidae), are an obligate ectoparasite o humans that causes pediculosis capitis, a nuisance for millions of people worldwide. It has been treated by methods that include the physical remotion of lice, various domestic treatments and conventional insecticides. None of these methods render complete protection, and there is clear evidence for the evolution of systemic toxicity too. This short-term project describes a 'new series' of tests to examine the effect of herbal and synthetic shampoo containing Terpenes and other's as constituent used against lice and proven having anti-lice activity. In this test, Ocimum sanctum (Fam: Labiatae) and Lippia nodiflora (Fam: verbenaceae) were communized into coarse powder and extracted with water as solvent. To the extract, added 0.0008%v/v formaldehyde to prevent fermentation. The crude extract was formulated with synthetic base (Galaxy surfactant PVT Ltd, Chennai) without any further modification. Then it was tested for it's anti lice activity (invitro studies). In this novel fabric method of evaluation, 30 X 30 cm clear white muslin cloth (3 in number), and the shampoo is evenly distributed on each one taken as a control, one for test and another as standard. In each, 100 lice were taken and tested for anti lice activity. The results showed that treatment of lice with aqueous extract in synthetic base caused complete immobilization within two hours with no subsequent recovery (95%) and results were compared with standard formulation available in the market (97%). Finally it was concluded that terpenes from the plants formulated into synthetic base shown a promissory results when compared with the standard preparation. In another test, it was also concluded that aqueous extract of the herbal drug in herbal base prepared from seed cover of Sapindus trifoliatus shown that it is less effective (only 60%) and less stable comparing with the standard (97%). In both the tests efficacy wise, it is less but the difference is insignificant there is a lot of scope to improve the efficacy and shelf life of the preparation.
QUALITY CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR VARIOUS HERBAL FORMULATIONS - A REVIEW
Theja, I.*, Muni Vinayaki B., Arun Rasheed and Ashok Kumar C.K.
Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy, Sree Sainath Nagar, Tirupathi 517 502
Quality Control is a system for ensuring the maintenance of proper standards in manufactured goods, especially by periodic random inspection of the product. Chromatographic analysis, one of the quality control techniques of herbals can be done using TLC, HPLC, HPTLC and GC, UV, Fluorimetry, GC-MS; etc.Chromatographic fingerprinting has become one of the most powerful approaches to quality control of herbal medicines. Multiple chromatographic fingerprinting consists of more than one chromatographic fingerprint and represents the whole characteristics of chemical constitutions of the complex medicine, is proposed as a potential strategy in this complicated case. A binary chromatographic fingerprinting of "danshen dropping pill" (dsdp), the best-sold traditional Chinese medicine in china, was developed. HPLC fingerprint and gc/ms fingerprint that, respectively, represent chemical characteristics of aporphinoid and quinolizidine alkaloids of the total alkaloids from caulophyllum robustum were developed. Triphala churna is a widely used herbal formulation that contains equal proportion of dried fruit powder of Emblica officinalis [Phyllanthus emblica], Terminalia chebula and T. bellirica. Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) has been determined by high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method which was found to be reproducible, accurate and precise to detect concentration at nanogram level.
MEDICINAL PLANTS MARKETING AND CONSERVATION IN BAIRLUTY-NAGALUTY FORESTS OF NALLAMALAIS.
K. Jayamma and B. Ravi Prasad Rao
Department of Botany, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur - 515003.
Nallamalais is one of the Centres for Plant Diversity extended in central part of the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh. The present study on medicinal plants marketing and conservation has been taken up in Bairluty and Nagaluty forest ranges of Atmakur forest division in Nallamalais. The data on medicinal plant resources has been collected from local tribal and folklore that still dependent on herbal medicine till date. Of the 38 wild plant taxa recorded as NTFP from the study area, 13 are known to possess medicinal value. The medicinal plant taxa which are widely used and being marketing as NTFP are: Aegle marmelos, Azadirachta indica, Balanites aegyptiaca, Boswellia serrata, Decalepis hamiltonii, Grewia hirsuta, Madhuca indica, Phyllanthus emblica, Sapindus emarginata, Sterculia urens, Strychnos nux-vomica, Strychnos potatorum, and Terminalia chebula. The present paper highlights the collection practices, marketing and conservation perspectives with reference to the medicinal plants of the study area.
QUALITY CONTROL OF MARKETTED FORMULATIONS CONTAINING SHANKHAPUSHPI USING SCOPOLETIN BY HPTLC
Nikita Dhruv , Supriya Jirge and Pratima Tatke
C.U.Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T. Womens' University, Juhu Road,
Santacruz, Mumbai, E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Quality control in the indigenous system of medicine is mandatory for global acceptance of plant based formulations which lack validated methods of analysis due to their complex nature. One of the methods of quality control includes standardization by identifying marker compound/s from the herbs. A marker compound is defined as a chemical constituent in a herb with or without therapeutic activity which serves as a standard for referencing test materials. Shankhapushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis) is one of the most popular 'Medhya Rasayana' (Brain tonic) available as on today for a number of mental disorders and protecting the integrity and the function of mind. Scopoletin can be used as a marker compound for standardization of formulations containing Shankhapushpi since it is one of the major coumarins in the herbs with therapeutic activity and easy identification because of its fluorescent nature. The objective of the paper was to standardize formulations containing Shankhapushpi using Scopoletin as a marker by HPTLC. The purity of the reference standard (Scopoletin) was checked using HPLC and UV method of analysis. HPTLC method was developed using Scopoletin and was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The developed validated method was used to standardize the commercial formulations of Shankhpushpi using Scopoletin as a marker compound. The value of the correlation co-efficient was found to be 0.9992 and the linearity range was found to be 40-120 ng. The developed method was found to be precise, reproducible, accurate and reliable. Thus, a quality control method was successfully developed and validated for the marketed formulations of Shankhapushpi using Scopoletin as a marker compound by HPTLC. This method could also be successfully applied to all the other plant based formulations containing Scopoletin.
RECENT APPROACHES IN HERBAL DRUG STANDARDIZATION
Ajay V. Pathak, Vimalkant Sharma, Nilesh Gupta and Prof. A. K. Singhai
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,Dr. Hari Singh Gour University, Sagar (M.P.)
The over use of synthetic drugs with impurities, resulting in higher incidence of adverse drug reactions in more advanced communities, has motivated mankind to go back to Nature for safer remedies. Therefore, quality control standards of various medicinal plants used in indigenous system of medicine are becoming more relevant today in view of commercialization of formulations based on medicinal plants. "Standardization refers to the body of information and controls necessary to produce material of reasonable consistency. This is achieved through minimizing the inherent variation of natural product composition through quality assurance practices applied to agricultural and manufacturing processes. The development of parameters for quality control of Herbal drugs is a big task involving biological evaluation for a particular disease area, chemical profiling of the raw material and laying down specifications for the finished product. Therefore, the word "standardization" should encompass the entire field of study from birth of a plant to its clinical application. For standardization and quality assurance purposes, following three attributes are desirable i) Authenticity, ii) Purity and iii) Assay. Authenticity relates to proving that the material is true. Authentication in itself involves many parameters including gross morphology, microscopy, chemical analysis and DNA fingerprinting. Purity pertains to evaluating that there are no adulterants present in the plant material. Assay part of standardization is chemical and biological profiling which could assess the chemical effects and curative values get established. The new era of herbal drug standardization includes pharmacognostical, chemical, biological, biopharmaceutical and molecular approaches of drug development and discovery, where biotechnology driven applications play an important role.